Human Sex Trafficking Around the World
Economic and social imbalance as well as different kinds of conflicts that are the result of politics have led to migration of people internationally and domestically throughout the globe. Technology mobility, sex tourism and capital has received a boost as a result of globalization. High dependency levels, illiteracy, violence, social stigma, academic poverty and gender disparities are just some of the aspects that have placed women and children in helpless situations which have led to nurturing and outgrowth of cavernous catastrophe, around the globe, of sex trafficking.
In this context, trafficking is the transportation, harboring, receipt, sale, recruitment or transfer of persons through use of threats, violence, abduction, deception, coercion, force or fraud with the purpose of driving exploitation (Huda 375). One of the human rights abuse that is highly impacted in the world today is that of trafficking young children and women for purposes of sexual exploitation and other kinds of prostitution. The effect this has on society as a result of illegal sex industries is far more damaging to the health of people than fast food (Diep 309). The human sex traffickers use different channels in initiation, transportation and initiation of the victims into the industry across the globe. On the other hand, there has been various religious and legislative responses to the issue as well various recommendations put across to aid in advocating for the vulnerable individuals in the world today. The aim of this analysis is to bring to light the operation and existence of illegal sex industry and human trafficking across the world. Human sex trafficking across the globe is a major issue that needs to be addressed because of its steady and rapid growth which is at the expense of vulnerable women and children who are victims of illegal operation.
Human Sex Trafficking around the World Today
Human sex trafficking is a prime issue on the international agenda today. Human trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation has gained great proportions in the world over. Trafficked victims who pass international borders are estimated to vary from 700,000 to 2 million each year. Out of this number, an estimated 80 percent is women and out of that percentage, 70 percent are solely trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. The illegal sex industry, has profits that are estimated at 7 to 10 billion US $ a year, forming the 3rd most profitable illegal enterprise in the world and coming after arms and drugs (Riegler 231). The success of the industry is largely pegged on selling of bodies (Diep 309). Diep argues illegal sex industry is subjected to economic principles of supply and demand as it is driven by consumption of consumers (309).
Globally, human sex trafficking occurs in a manner that women from nations that are fairly poor are either deceived or compelled into leaving their homes or source countries under the lie of jobs awaiting them, and taken to destination countries that are fairly rich where they are forced into the sex industry. Some of these women find themselves helpless situations as they are forced to work in order to pay for their passage “Debt”, as prostitutes and often, they endure rape, beatings as well as slavery conditions (Riegler 232). The major cause of sex trafficking in some countries are varied and complex.
Analysis of Human Sex Trafficking in Asia
This section highlights current trends and practices of human sex trafficking in different countries in South Asia: Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan and India etc.
India: This is the origin, transit and country of destination for men, children and women who are trafficked for the main reason of sexual and labor exploitation (Huda 377). Huda records that children and women from Bangladesh are trafficked to India or even passed through the Middle East and Pakistan for sexual exploitation. Nepalese women and girls are victims since they are trafficked to India for sexual exploitation, forced labor as well as domestic servitude (377). According to estimates by UNICEF, India has the largest number of child prostitutes in Asia out of 1 million. As such, India has proven to be a flourishing destination for sex tourists from the US and other Western countries (Huda 377).
Afghanistan: This country serves as both a source and passage of women and children trafficked for the reasons of sexual and labor exploitation. Mostly, the victims are children trafficked to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Iran for begging, prostitution and labor oftentimes, with the approval of parents who are deceived into believing the children will get better education and opportunities abroad. In Pakistan, women and young girls are either sold, compelled into marriage and prostitution or kidnapped or at times, enticed by marriage proposals that are fake. To make it even worse, the victims are trafficked internally for purposes of settling disputes or debts and sexual exploitation as well as compelled into marriages (Huda 377). There are as well cases in Sri Lanka where young boys are often traded for sex with foreigners who attract beach boys with their money at the coast (Huda 375).
Challenges that Contribute to Sustained Existence of Human Sex Trafficking
Regardless of the fact human sex trafficking is illegal, its growth and existence the world over is attributed to a couple of challenges some of which are complex and as such, difficult to deal with. For example, more women and children are fleeing countries such as Nepal and Bangladesh with the purpose of finding living standards that are better only to end up as victims of highly remunerative human sex trade. Young people, amounting to the thousands in parts of Asia and other countries like Nepal and Afghanistan flee their country as a result of racial, gender, social and ethic discrimination, to save their lives only to end up as human sex trafficking trade victims. Another prime challenge accelerating trafficking is the assumption that there are individuals who are less deserving and far exploitable than others (Huda 376).
Current investigation assessment carried out by International Organization for Migration in Afghanistan on the state of human trafficking found the major contributing factors were socio-economic pressures, internal security, drought and armed conflict. Other factors included inaccessibility of judicial system to women as well as failure to report cases of the victims affected (Huda 377).
The high increasing number of female children who come from poor backgrounds as well as technology introduction used to market victims for pornography, bride trade and prostitution among others, via the internet has weakened the fight against human sex trafficking. Silence by international community as well as various governments and vehement campaigns spear headed by certain groups and individuals that champion liberation of sex industry through redefinition of sex trafficking and prostitution as compelled and free prostitution among others (Huda 376).
Diep argues rapid growth of illegal sex industry is the result of 3 major factors: the fact international migration has increased in demand, especially in source countries and to some extent, destination countries; lack of properly and clearly outlined reinforcements and legal channels to arrest, prosecute and detect traffickers and thirdly, high demand for illegal avenues that are in support of migration as a result of imposed restrictions by developed nations on illegal migration (Diep 311).
Health Effects of Human Sex Trafficking
The consequences of human sex trafficking are far reaching on the health of the victims affected. Victims are exposed to physical, sexual and psychological trauma. Sex trafficking has health implications that are far reaching which extent beyond victims to those who visit brothels often and the general public as they become vulnerable to infections that are sexually transmitted. Other major health effects include unwanted pregnancies, TB and hepatitis among other communicable diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, rape and forced abortions among others. There also has been mental and emotional health issues, drugs abuse and alcohol, murder, nightmares, addiction to drugs, suicide attempts and insomnia among others (Huda 378).
Possible Changes in Human Sex Trafficking Across the Globe
The question regarding possible changes in human sex trafficking is quite tricky and takes different directions both in social, religion and legal context. There are movements sprouting up that champion for legalization of highly lucrative illegal sex business based on the argument it created employment opportunities for participants (Huda 376). Despite legal war attempt on the illegal business across the globe, there are major barriers as human sex trafficking attracts a high income in some of these nations thus leading to economic development as such, making it hard for them to be part of the war against sex trafficking (Diep 310).
However, the subject has been declared as a global issue and has started to attract support from varying bodies across the globe despite the high number of challenges. There also has been intense campaigns against illegal sex business with campaigns succeeding in ideologies getting incorporated into government policies which help in fight against illegal sex industry in the US and across the world. These campaigns are championed by a coalition of the Christian right and radical feminist (Weitzer 33).
The continued flourish and existence of lucrative sex trafficking business is the result of a couple of factors that are being addressed slowly across the world. With cooperation of the social, legal and non-governmental organizations, it would be possible to combat the illegal operation. However, to achieve this, there are a couple of key concerns like illiteracy, poverty, underdevelopment in some countries, low incomes and rural urban imbalance, should be addressed since they are the major reasons behind the existence of this industry. Today, there are several nations standing together in a bid to fight human sex trafficking war as it has been growing gradually, being ranked as the third most profitable illegal business in the world after drugs and arms. Sex trafficking as well hinders the fight against different sexual transmitted diseases like HIV and consequently, it should be abolished.
Diep, Hanh. “We Pay-The Economic Manipulation of International and Domestic Laws to Sustain Sex Trafficking.” Loyola university Chicago International Law Review. 2 (2004): 309-331.Print.
Huda, Sigma. “Sex trafficking in South Asia.” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 94.3 (2006): 374-381. Print.
Riegler, April. “Missing the mark: Why the trafficking victim’s protection act fails to protect sex trafficking victims in the United States.” Harvard Journal of Law & Gender 30 (2007): 231.Print.
Weitzer, Ronald. “Moral crusade against prostitution.” Society 43.3 (2006): 33-38.Print.