History Essay Paper on What was France’s role in Vietnam in the 19th & 20th centuries

Assignment Questions

1. What was France’s role in Vietnam in the 19th & 20th centuries?

 The presence of France in Vietnam was to guard its citizens who were on foreign missions. The Nguyen dynasty was opposed to the activities of the catholic missionaries including Da Nang, since it viewed their presence as a political strategy by France. France also wanted to seize the control of Vietnam and in 1884; it managed to gain full control of northern Vietnam leading to the establishment of French Indochina. France also wanted to protect French Indochina, which was vital to the economic development of France, and France heavily invested in infrastructural development.

2. What was Japan’s role in Vietnam during World War II?

The major goal of Japan was to take control of the Indochina, which was under the French rule. The Japanese managed to enter into an agreement with the French governor after the fall of France, which allowed the Japanese to settle 30,000 troops in Indochina with full access of the Vietnamese airport. The Japanese used Indochina as its base station for its military activities in southern Asia, and focused on retaining all the military powers. This happened in the 19th and 20th century.

3. What were the various (policies, actions, responses) involvement of the following Presidents in regards to the conflicts in Vietnam

(A). Presidents Eisenhower

President Eisenhower assisted the French who were in Vietnam by providing them with military support but he did not involve his administration in Vietnam’s affairs. He was the 34th president of the United States. The presidents also supported Ngo Dinh Diem, an anticommunist leader, to take control of Saigon after the French give in to Viet Migh. The president ruled from 1953 to 1961.

(B). President Kennedy

President Kennedy ruled from 1961 to 1963 when he was assassinated. The president supported the South Vietnamese by giving them economic and military aid. He was adamant on the issue of withdrawal from the Vietnam’s growing conflict. He also supported the coup that oversaw the murder and overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, the South Vietnam’s president.

(C). President Johnson

He was the 36th president of the United States. His leadership increased the number of military involvement in Vietnam with an aim of winning the war. His efforts did not however bear fruits, which made him not to seek re-election since he failed to bring the Vietnam War to a halt.

(D). President Nixon

As the 37th president of the United States, President Nixon had promised to reduce the level of military deployment in Vietnam. The president did not honor his promise; he expanded his war territories to Cambodia and Laos. During this time, it was important to retain military operation in Vietnam.

4. Why were Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon concerned about China and Soviet Union in regards to Vietnam.

The four presidents of the United States participated in the Vietnam War in order to mitigate the spread of communism. China and the Soviet Union were in support of communism, which was of major concern to the United States government. Communism would deny people the freedom of movement.

5. What were the Gulf of Tonkin incident and its significance to American foreign policy?

This incident is associated to the two conflicts between the United States and Northern Vietnam with regard to the Gulf of Tonkin waters where they were involved in sea battles. In response, President Johnson oversaw the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. This gave him powers to deploy military force to Southeast Asia without the congress authorization.

6. Discuss some of the constraints on the US and why Vietnam was considered an unwinnable war?

The limitations that contributed to the lost war by the Americas were due to lack of a clear mission, geographic limitation, and lack of a defined scope of the war. Robert McNamara, the 8th secretary of defense of Unites states between 1961 and 1968, oversaw the increase of military involvement in Vietnam War. These delimitations slowed down development of the war torn country.

7. Define the Role of the given Individuals in Vietnam

Ngo Ding Diem was a Vietnamese statesman who was against communism. Ho Chi Minh was a communist leader and led the Vietnamese in their struggle for independence. He was also the president of Vietnam between 1954 and 1963. Robert McNamara is an American diplomat who became the U.S secretary of defense. He was the advisor in President Kennedy’s administrations and played a vital role in American involvement in Vietnam in 1916. The Bay of Pigs is associated to the overthrow of Castro with the aim of forming a non communist administration in Cuba in 1959. The Cuban Missile Crisis involved heated negotiation between the United States and the Soviet Union on the setting up of a nuclear-armed soviet missile in the October 1962.

The intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is missile whose effects can be experienced to over 5500 kilometers. The Ho Chi Minh Trail connected the southern and the northern Vietnam via Cambodia and Laos. The road network was meant to assist the Vietnamese Army with their transportation. The operation of rolling thunder was approved by President Johnson and was meant to bomb the North Vietnam. The Tet offensive was a joined effort between the Viet Cong Forces and North Vietnamese to invade some cities in South Vietnam in 1968. Viet Cong was in support of the Army in North Vietnamese. The establishment of the national liberation front in North Vietnam was to liberate the citizen from the rule of Ngo Dinh Diem. The democratic convection took place in 1968 and lead to the development of the war policies. The pro-war demonstrators pretended to be in support of the war. The anti-war demonstrators were against the Vietnam War. Helsinki Accord was signed to establish some level of agreement between the western countries and the Soviet Union. The accord was signed by 35 countries.