Industrialization after the Civil War
After the Civil War, industrialization in the United States began to develop at a faster rate, having effects on various aspects of life in the country, such as the economy, society, and politics.
Three major aspects of industrialization between 1865 and 1920 that influenced US society, economy, and politics.
- Women’s Suffrage
This refers to the period when more women began to liberate themselves from the bondage they had been living in (Burton, 1990). Before this period, women were oppressed and were not allowed to take up leadership positions or take part in events that were concerned with development, such as politics. This growing awareness among women led to the formation of several movements that were aimed at defending the rights of women in the society. The first movement was the Seneca Falls Convention that was held in the year 1848.
- Labor Organizations
These were organizations that were formed to defend and protect the rights of workers in America. The first known labor organization that was formed was the knights of labor, which at first was a secret. This group accommodated all types of workers despite their race and gender.
Farming in America expanded greatly during this period. The number of farms tripled as the federal government issued approximately 165 ha of land for free to those settlers who were under the 1862 Homestead Act.
II. List five (5) specific groups affected by industrialization and two examples for each.
Workers during this time began to be liberated as they formed and joined labor movements. These movements were supposed to ensure that workers in all fields were treated in a fair way (Silver, 2003).
- One such group was known as Knights of Labor, which was the first ever attempt of forming labor organizations.
- American Federation of Labor was soon formed after the decline of the Knights of Labor.
Women during this period also got their chance to rise. They began to form liberation movements through which they were able to champion their rights.
- Women’s Christian Temperance Union
- National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
- Grange movement
- Homestead Act- Farmers under the act received land for free from the federal government.
During this period, several immigrants of various races found their way into the United States. They were leaving their native lands to escape either religious threats or poverty. America was a favorable destination for them because of availability of jobs that suited them.
- Chinese exclusion act – against the migration of Chinese into America.
- Gentleman’s Agreement – this stopped the migration of Japanese.
- President Wilson
- President Roosevelt
III. List five (5) ways that industrialization affected the life of the average working American during this period
- The average workers were able to receive better treatment at their places of work, and were also entitled to better payments as compared to the past.
- Most women who were otherwise ordinary had their voices heard, and their rights protected, thus making them able to soar greater heights rather than being confined to the kitchen as had been the case previously.
- Farmers were able to make better living from their farming activities due to the availability of movements that ensured they were not exploited by the rich (Chenery, et al, 1986).
Burton, A. M. (1990). The white woman’s burden: British feminists and the Indian woman, 1865–1915. In Women’s Studies International Forum (Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 295-308). Pergamon.
Silver, B. J. (2003). Forces of labor: workers’ movements and globalization since 1870. Cambridge University Press.
Chenery, H. B., Robinson, S., & Syrquin, M. (1986). Industrialization and growth (p. 45). World Bank.