Health Care Essay Sample on Managing Human Capital

Managing Human Capital

Project Selection-Strategic Plan Section Outline

The concerned stakeholders have not been avid in matters that relate to the managing of human capital in healthcare settings. Human capital is a critical component of all healthcare systems. More specifically, an efficient human capital framework in the health care setting enables the elimination of health crises, and in the end, sustainable health care structures become evident (Armstrong, 2009). The section shall review the strategic plan that pertains to the health care system. In addition, the analysis shall examine the section outline of the project. Effective healthcare systems require ample information, reliable research activities, and an unshakable knowledge base (Bates, 2014). Research activities enable the concerned stakeholders to discern the crucial policies that relate to health care workers’ status, performance, and challenges.

The formulation of a strategy that pertains to building an idealized human capital system within a specified healthcare setting is essential. More precisely, it is crucial to provide a rationale for each component of the idealized human capital framework in the healthcare platform. Moreover, the study shall examine Gentiva Health Services, Inc., this organization deals with the provision of home health and hospice services. More precisely, the organization provides community care facilities to about 550 locales in forty states (Gentiva, 2013). To begin with, it is critical to scrutinize the human capital constraints that healthcare systems encounter. The constraints include:

  1. Insufficient number of implementing health workers
  2. Lack of quality performance by healthcare personnel
  3. Imbalances in the availability of healthcare staff
  4. Lack of an efficient research in the human capital matters that associate with healthcare
  5. Challenges in distribution of healthcare personnel
  6. The healthcare personnel lack sophisticated healthcare training
  7. Inappropriate skill mix
  8. Inefficient supervision and low levels of motivation
  9. Inappropriate performance management systems in the healthcare platform

The strategic plan includes:

  1. Improvement of the knowledge base of healthcare personnel and this enables policy decisions at all levels to be evidence-based (WHO, 2006). As a result, the policy decisions become responsive to the urgent need of healthcare personnel and the challenges that relate to meeting this need.
  2. It is important to embrace the collection, use, and access of information that pertains to health workforce (McCallum, 2010). Hence, critical information that pertains to the size, characteristics, and dynamics of healthcare personnel will be available.
  3. It is imperative to increase investment in information systems, and this enables the concerned agencies to possess adequate technological facilities.
  4. Ensuring that the healthcare personnel improve their expertise and knowledge at all times. Hence, the personnel will have access to a diversified training (McQuide, Stevens & Settle, 2008). In addition, the health care staff will be able to acquire expertise in identifying and collecting health workforce data, managing database frameworks, and analysis and report formulation.
  1. The integration of the healthcare personnel classification is essential (Nica, 2013). Therefore, this will improve unforeseen data collection activities and the matters of comparison will be simple in all healthcare systems.
  2. It is imperative to embrace the application of standard indicators in the healthcare human capital platform. Hence, this will facilitate the conversion of data into information and evidence (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). For instance, the indicator that relates to rates of unemployment and dual employment among health practitioners can be applicable.
  3. The improvement of innovative action research in the health workforce frameworks is paramount. Therefore, this will enable the provision of reliable and prompt data that pertains to the dynamics of the health care personnel (Rispel & Barron, 2012). As a result, this will enable the scrutiny of the health workforce trends and matters of comparability will become easy to evaluate.
  4. Activities that involve building, strengthening, and sustaining of healthcare networks are essential. Hence, there will be an improved quality of data and increased integration of information (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). More intently, there will be increased capacities of collection, analysis, and dissemination of information and research that pertains to health workforce.
  5. The improvement of the existing human capital systems in the health care sector is essential to forming an effective strategy (Armstrong, 2009).
  6. The identification of innovative methods to mobilize the health care personnel and to nurture new partnerships is necessary (Nica, 2013).
  7. It is imperative to identify and ensure that the maximum utilization of collaboration activities between programs is successful (WHO, 2006). More specifically, there should be an improvement of the definition of skills and the coordination of resources and activities should be apparent.

Project Draft 1- Draft Including Employment Law Section

The essence of the labor laws is to protect the collective aspects that pertain to employment relationships in all scenarios. Labor laws incorporate the aspects of organizing and collective bargaining (McCallum, 2010). Organizing entails the matters that pertain to the integration of an individual’s employment relationship. Collective bargaining refers to terms and conditions if an employment is existent (Armstrong, 2009). The international labor law makes provision for the right to collective bargaining, and this right is a human right according to that law. The law came into play in 1948 during the emergence of the UN laws that deal with human rights issues (WHO, 2006). Another aspect of international labor law is the International Labor Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of the year 1998 (McQuide, Stevens & Settle, 2008). However, the study shall review the US labor law, and it shall examine the 1974 Health Care Amendments. The amendments are critical especially when analyzing the employment law section that relates to healthcare.

The US labor law encompasses the state and national labor laws (Bates, 2014). The state laws govern the matters that relate to the American public sector. The national labor laws relate to the private sector issues in the US. The law that pertains to the American private sector incorporates the National Labor Relations Act (McCallum, 2010). The act caters for the employers in the private sector who have an influence on matters of commerce. Nevertheless, the act does not cover the railroads and airlines. The Railway Act deals with matters that pertain to railroads and airline industries (Nica, 2013). The American private sector labor law supports the main structure of the integrated industrial relations mechanisms. The US private sector law operates on various principles. The principles encompass decentralization, employee choice, exclusive representation, and majority rule (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). In addition, the aspect of written and legal contracts falls under these principles.

The decentralized systems incorporate the bargaining units such as the firm, crafts, departmental structures, plants, facilities, and multi- firm, and multi-unit matters (Rispel & Barron, 2012). The section on employee choice addresses various matters including the choice of personnel on matters that concern their representation in labor unions. Moreover, this section encompasses the employees’ choice of a particular union (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). The employee choice section dictates that there will be no official “enterprise unions” and union registration with the government. The act further dictates that there will be no imposed representation of any kind whatsoever (McCallum, 2010). The third principle of the US private sector law, which is the majority rule states that the choice of union representation or no union representation lies with the majority of employees in a particular unit. In addition, the rule dictates that if the majority of employees in the unit are in need of union representation then the whole unit gets the union representation.

The exclusive representation principle addresses matters that pertain to the preference of a particular union by a majority among the personnel (Armstrong, 2009). If a union gains the approval of the majority, then that particular union represents all the employees in the unit. According to the principle, the union will represent all the employees in the unit including those that cast their votes and those who did not (Bates, 2014). Finally, the written and legal contracts principle states that collective agreements ought to be in writing. Moreover, it articulates that collective agreements are legally enforceable in a court of law, and usually their enforcement occurs through final and binding arbitration (McQuide, Stevens & Settle, 2008). The fundamentals of the labor law incorporate matters that concern unfair labor practices and bargaining. In the US, the NLRB is the administrative body that deals with the labor issues that concern the rights of employees and union representation matters (McCallum, 2010). The development of the US labor law incorporates the pro-employer tilt stage of 1806-1926/35, the pro-union tilt of 1926/35-1947, and the current stage which is, the government as Umpire of 1947-current.

The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 falls under the government as umpire stage (Nica, 2013). The act addressed the contentious clauses in the Wagner Act of 1935. The Wagner Act concentered more on labor representation, and this was inappropriate for some employees. Republican Congress enacted the Taft-Hartley Act, and this meant that the act supersedes a presidential veto (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). Section 3 of the act increased the board members in NLRB from 3 to5. The same section formulated a general counsel that would address the matters of prosecution in the board (Rispel & Barron, 2012). Section 7 of the act awarded employees exclusive rights to refrain from activities that pertain to unions. Section 14b of the Taft-Hartley Act outlawed the closed shop, and this permitted union shops if the employer and the union agree (McCallum, 2010). In addition, section 14b allows states to enact the “right of work” statutes. Section 8c of the act allows employers to access their right of speech.

The Taft-Hartley Act also elaborated on the “duty to bargain” and the obligations of the board in matters that pertain to evidence (Armstrong, 2009). In addition, the act endorses elections as the appropriate method of determining representation. The act imposes some constraints on the board’s unit determination authority. Moreover, it excluded supervisors from the act’s cover and it created a Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (Bates, 2014). Another act of importance is the Labor Management, Reporting, and Disclosure Act of 1958. The essence of this law is to control the internal affairs of the existent unions. In addition, the act amended the National Labor Relations Act by introducing section 8(b) (7) that limits organizational picketing by unions (McQuide, Stevens & Settle, 2008). Section 8 (b) (4) improved the aspects that relate to the provision of secondary activities.

The Health Care Amendments of 1974 made the non-profit health care organizations to fall under the NLRA. More specifically, additional measures to minimize the occurrence of strikes by healthcare workers became evident (Nica, 2013). The amendment of the NLRA act occurred, and this offered coverage to personnel of non-profit hospitals. In 1987, NLRB decided to engage itself in the law making process by introducing a Federal register that contained a notice that addressed the matters of collective bargaining in the healthcare fraternity (McCallum, 2010). In 1989, the Supreme Court endorsed the board’s decision. Since then, the challenges of reliable units in acute care hospitals have become extinct.

Project Draft 2-Draft Including Collective Bargaining Issues

Collective bargaining incorporates the matters that pertain to the terms and conditions of employment (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). The terms of employment are of utmost importance, and healthcare fraternities have to be avid about the issues that concern collective bargaining. For example, at Gentiva Health Services Inc., the aspect of collective bargaining addresses the critical issues that arise after an employment offer becomes apparent at the home care facility (Gentiva, 2013). The elements that relate to the collective bargaining include the work environment and the profile of the home care facility, negotiations, and strike preparations.

The organizational profile is critical in matters of collective bargaining. The organizational culture determines the profile of a particular health care facility. When a job offer becomes evident at Gentiva, the hired health practitioner will have very high expectations about Gentiva. The home care facility is one of the most successful home care facilities in the United States locale (Gentiva, 2013). Therefore, a newly hired individual may expect the terms of employment to be extremely favorable because of Gentiva’s profile. The work environment correlates to the profile of the healthcare facility (Rispel & Barron, 2012). In addition, the work environment is critical in the human capital scenario of health care organizations. More intently, research shows that the work environment greatly influences the decision of a healthcare professional on whether to proceed with a particular job offer.

Negotiation is a crucial aspect of collective bargaining, and health care facilities should be keen on matters of negotiation. Gentiva addresses the issues of negotiation in various ways including advocating for the engagement of diversified teams and through scrutiny of data (Gentiva, 2013). In addition, the home care facility develops official plans that focus on negotiation issues. The institution also ensures that it synchronizes timelines, communicates effectively, and it educates unions in the correct manner (Gentiva, 2013). The negotiating teams include the hospital administration, human resources, the finance department, internal counsel and many more.

Strikes occur in many health care facilities, and it is necessary to formulate a strike plan (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). A strike plan minimizes the disruptions of operations in health care facilities. Secondly, it enhances the security levels of patients, personnel, and the visitors. In addition, a strike plan preserves the reputation of the health care facility (Armstrong, 2009). Gentiva’s strike plan incorporates setting timelines, involving diversified teams, formal written documents, and enhancement of accountability measures.

Project Draft 3- Draft Including Most Critical Areas

An efficient health care system incorporates equitable access, efficiency, effectiveness, quality of services, and the responsiveness of the health care workers (Bates, 2014). The human capital system plays a critical role in achieving an optimum healthcare facility. The aspects that are of much importance in the healthcare human capital systems include satisfactory remuneration, work environment, support systems, the skill mix, and performance management (WHO, 2006). Moreover, the aspects of training and the distribution of health care personnel are of utmost vitality. A robust healthcare system has to exhibit an unshakable human capital system. More specifically, it is critical for the study to scrutinize the vital elements that constitute an ideal human capital system in the healthcare platform.

The skill mix is a crucial factor in the healthcare workforce. Skill mix analyzes the mix of posts, ranks, or occupations in a particular healthcare organization (Nica, 2013). Many healthcare fraternities encounter many difficulties when it comes to addressing matters of skill mix. Gentiva Health Services, Inc. deals with the challenges of skill mix in various ways. To address the menace of skill shortages Gentiva ensures that it embraces the aspects of skill substitution. Hence, the personnel are unconfined and they can diversify their skill set (Gentiva, 2013). Secondly, the healthcare institution ensures that it enhances the use of the skills that are available among its staff members. The features that ensure an appropriate skill mix include quality improvement, containment of costs, healthcare reforms, and technological innovation (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). Gentiva ensures that it improves these features at all times, and this enables the healthcare fraternity to address the skill mix challenge.

The support systems are of much importance in the healthcare workforce. The support systems incorporate the aspects of information and communication and the infrastructure and supply systems. Dedicated buildings, high-tech laboratories, appropriate field sites, and quality sanitation services constitute the infrastructure (Rispel & Barron, 2012). More intently, many healthcare fraternities in the world encounter difficulties because of infrastructural challenges. Infrastructure is a key support system of the healthcare workforce. Gentiva aims to improve the support systems to enable its workforce to perform at their optimum rates. The hospice facility embraces the use of high-tech laboratories and sophisticated equipment (Gentiva, 2013). In addition, the work environment in the hospice facility is appropriate, and this increases the levels of efficiency among its workers.

Research shows that it is only possible to manage a measurable feature (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). More precisely, it is necessary to implement measures that will improve the productivity of the healthcare personnel. However, these measures must be dependent on the reliable data that pertains to the workforce level, distribution, and skill mix. The features of information and communication guarantee the availability of reliable data in all scenarios (WHO, 2006). Gentiva aims to improve its information framework in all its operations, and this enables the hospice facility to set the benchmark in the provision of home care services.

The distribution of the medical practitioners is a critical element in the healthcare human capital systems. The challenges that pertain to distribution of personnel include migration of health workers, lack of improved working conditions, and lack of investments in the health workforce (Armstrong, 2009). In some areas, the number of skilled healthcare practitioners is very discouraging, and this deprives the patient of quality healthcare services. Gentiva Health Services, Inc. takes various steps to curb the problems of imbalances in the distribution of healthcare personnel. Firstly, the hospice facility ensures that it invests in its workers (Gentiva, 2013). A skilled healthcare practitioner will not hesitate to migrate to a facility that has better terms. It is mandatory to invest in the healthcare personnel, and this enables the retention of key skills in the hospice facility. In addition, it is crucial to improve the working environments and to emphasize about the return of migrant workers.

Project Draft 4-Draft Including Personnel Recruitment and Retention

The recruitment activities of the health workforce have to conform to the critical needs of the patient at all times (Bates, 2014). At Gentiva, they ensure that they recruit personnel that can provide effective and efficient services to the patient. More intently, the hospice facility ensures that it grasps the concept of hiring health practitioners that are responsive to the patients’ needs (Gentiva, 2013). The skills that pertain to teamwork, competence, and embracing of different views are of utmost importance when recruiting health care personnel. The responsiveness of the healthcare practitioner to the needs of patients is paramount. In addition, the competence of the health care practitioner is crucial in the recruitment process. All recruitment procedures in the health care fraternity have to occur in line with the set international guidelines (WHO, 2006). The guidelines articulate that recruitment should occur in line with the principles of transparency, fairness, and the promotion of the sustainability of healthcare frameworks. In addition, the migrant health workers should obtain a fair recruitment process in accordance with set international and resident laws in a particular country.

The aspect of employee retention is of much importance, and the concerned stakeholders have to formulate procedures that enhance the retention of the health workforce. Gentiva takes several authoritative steps to ensure that it retains its workforce. The hospice facility embraces a consultative framework in all its operations (Gentiva, 2013). It is necessary to consult the concerned medical practitioners before implementing decisions that affect them in any way whatsoever. It is not prudent to ignore the inputs of the healthcare personnel in all operations. A consultative framework ensures that the healthcare workforce remains appreciated, and this enables the health care personnel to perform at their optimum standards in all scenarios (McCallum, 2010). Gentiva implements departmental consultative structures and the hospice facility communicates frequently with the staff representatives at various levels.

The well-being of the health care practitioners is very crucial when it comes to the retention of the health workforce (McQuide, Stevens & Settle, 2008). Gentiva implements the workers’ wellbeing in various ways such as providing staff welfare funds, holiday schemes, and the facility has a department that addresses the matters of employee welfare. The welfare of health care practitioners is very crucial, and the hospice facility ensures that it dedicates substantial resources towards enhancing the welfare of its workers. Another critical factor is the element of employees’ relief and support (Nica, 2013). The hospice facility ensures that its employees do not face challenges of work stress or depression. The hospice facility does this by implementing various steps such as training personnel on appropriate ways to nurture a healthy work life (Gentiva, 2013). In addition, Gentiva avails various facilities to its workforce and these facilities incorporate counseling services on issues of stress management, relief fund for the employees, salary advances, and mentor and liaison schemes.

The aspect of training the personnel is critical in both employee recruitment and retention activities at Gentiva Health Services, Inc. Medical practitioners with adequate training will possess higher levels of motivation, and the healthcare facility ensures that it avails adequate training facilities for all its employees. Hence, this enables the levels of turnover to decrease drastically, and in the end, there is no shortage or imbalance in the distribution of medical practitioners (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). Training is essential because it enables the workers to obtain up-to-date knowledge on various dynamics in the industry. The healthcare fraternity is very dynamic, and the risks of diseases are ever evolving. In addition, the treatment protocols keep on changing in a regular manner depending on the prevailing healthcare scenarios (Rispel & Barron, 2012). To enhance employee retention training is mandatory for all the medical practitioners. Training enhances the levels of competence, quality, responsiveness, and efficiency in all scenarios.

Project Draft 5-Draft Including Performance Measurement, Compensation, and Benefits; and How to Establish Appropriate Standards for Each

The main aim of performance measurement is to ensure that health care facilities discern the root causes of the obstacles that make the healthcare fraternities to be unsuccessful in their mission (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). The pillars of workforce performance at Gentiva Health Services, Inc. include competence responsiveness, productivity, and availability. The availability aspect deals with the space and time. More specifically, it incorporates scrutinizing the attendance and distribution patterns of the healthcare personnel. In addition, it checks if there is a match between the assigned numbers of health workers and the urgency of patients’ needs in all scenarios (Armstrong, 2009).

Competence constitutes an integration of technical skills, knowledge, and attitudes. More precisely, it addresses the work behaviors of the health workforce. Responsiveness involves reviewing the treatment of patients by medical practitioners. More intently, it ensures that all patients get equal treatment notwithstanding their economic, social, or health status (Bates, 2014). Productivity addresses the aspect of producing sufficient and effective health services. Moreover, it deals with producing great healthcare results with the existent health workforce in a particular hospice facility. Improving productivity abrogates wastage of time among the healthcare personnel and it ensures maximum utilization of skills and other complementary facilities (Nica, 2013).

To establish appropriate standards for performance measurement, the streamlining of various factors is paramount. The factors include job-related aspects, support frameworks, and an enabling work environment (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). Job related aspects encompass issues such as job descriptions, ethical standards, skill mix, and supervision. Support frameworks incorporate appropriate remuneration of the health workforce, enhancement of infrastructure, and information and communication (Rispel & Barron, 2012). An enabling work environment incorporates sufficient training and development activities, enhancing teamwork and embracing frameworks that hold medical practitioners accountable and responsible for their actions.

The Gentiva management ensures that it avails a great compensation and remuneration package for all its employees. For instance, the clinical officers at the hospice facility receive their payments based on various methods. The basis of payment may be dependent on the number of visits, number of hours or per diem basis, or on the aspect of full-time service (Gentiva, 2013). The remuneration and compensation packages are crucial in all healthcare human capital systems. Medical practitioners tend to migrate because of meager benefits in particular healthcare facilities. To set the appropriate standards when it comes to remunerating and compensating health workers the hospice facilities have to improve various factors. The factors incorporate formulating attractive wage and benefits packages, implementing equity-based compensation plans, implementing employee stock-purchase structures and granting salary increments based on employees’ merit (Fraher & Verrier, 2009).

Project Draft 6- Draft Including Policies and Procedures for the Development of Human Capital

The development of human capital is crucial in all healthcare systems in existence. Development of human capital focuses on individual skills, and it addresses the long-term issues in the field of human capital (WHO, 2006). In addition, development enables the formulation of authoritative strategic frameworks in the healthcare human capital systems, and these frameworks enable the healthcare fraternities to be successful. The provisions of policy and procedure that are mandatory for the development of human capital include:

  1. Embracing improved coordination in activities that involve the training of the existent healthcare workers and designing custom-based training activities for the medical practitioners (Armstrong, 2009). Hence, this enables the integration of training among the existent personnel, and it ensures that an individual acquires the appropriate levels of competence.
  2. The enhancement and integration of supervisory structures are paramount. The clinical supervisors have to implement steps that hold health workers accountable, and the coordination of the supervisory efforts has to be evident across all healthcare systems (Bates, 2014). All health workers have to undergo performance appraisals that aim to nurture their individual skill sets.
  3. The improvement of remuneration and incentives is necessary for the development of human capital. The health workforce needs to obtain an improved remuneration and compensation package, and this will enable all healthcare personnel to acquire a strong combination of skills at an individual level (Nica, 2013).
  4. The implementation of patient-centered human capital systems is mandatory (Ostojic, Bilas & Franc, 2012). The pillars of performance include availability, competence, responsiveness, and productivity. All these pillars focus on the aspect of delivering quality services to the patient (Rispel & Barron, 2012). The development of healthcare human capital has to base its foundations on the patients’ needs at all times.
  5. The development of human capital has to entail a plan to address emergencies in the health care system (Fraher & Verrier, 2009). Catastrophes such as natural calamities and disease outbreaks are extremely devastating. The healthcare personnel have to possess training on activating emergency plans in a prompt manner. Human capital development policies have to ensure that the tackling of emergency cases in healthcare systems is appropriate in all times.

References

Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page.

Bates, R. (2014). Enhancing HR for health planning in diverse economies. Human Resource Development International, 17(1), 88-97.

Gentiva. (2013, December). Gentiva health services, Inc. Financial information. Retrieved from http://investors.gentiva.com/financials.cfm

McCallum, R. (2010, October). Comparison of American and Australian labor laws. Retrieved from http://www.nlrb.gov/75th/Documents/McCallum.pdf

McQuide, P., Stevens, J., & Settle, D. (2008, August). An analysis of human resources for health (HRH) Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.capacityproject.org/images/stories/files/techbrief_12.pdf

Nica, E. (2013). The Significance of HRM to the Health Care Platform. Economics, Management & Financial Markets, 8(4), 166-171.

Ostojić, R., Bilas, V., & Franc, S. (2012). Managing Human Resources in Healthcare. Megatrend Review, 9(3), 257-272.

Rispel, L. C., & Barron, P. (2012). Embracing Human Capital Systems: Principles of an integrated health insurance system. Development Southern Africa, 29(5), 616-635.

Fraher, E., & Verrier, M. C. (2009). Health Human Resource Ratios: A Comparative Study of the US and Canada. Physical Therapy, 89(2), 149-161.

WHO. (2006). Uniting for health: the world health organization report 2006. Policy briefs. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/management/WHR Ppolicy Briefs.pdf