Free Essay: How Temperature Affects Density
Density is a physical element and a collection of substances that compares the relationship between mass and volume. Therefore, it is affected by many factors including temperature. Temperature affects density based on the fact that an increase in temperature causes an increase in kinetic energy of particles that form density.
Temperature increases kinetic energy. The more kinetic energy a substance or an object has, the warmer it becomes with an increase in temperature. This occurs because substances and particles will move faster thus, reducing the density of the substance.
Temperature also has an effect on density based on prevailing weather conditions. When temperatures rise especially during summer, the air rises and becomes less dense. It causes low pressure system and when temperatures fall, the air becomes more dense leading to high pressure system.
Phase changes similarly occur because of temperature changes. When the change is highly significant, the phase also changes where solids change to liquids or gas. In other situations, solids are condensed from gas to liquid and back to solids.
Objects also expand with increase in temperatures. They become larger and less dense. However, when temperatures decrease, objects become smaller, more condensed and their density increases.
Temperature also affects hydrogen bonds in alcohol, bonds in water and glucose thus, affecting density. When temperatures are high, molecules in different objects are warmed up or get heated. They start to spread out faster because they are less dense.
On the other hand when temperatures are cooler or colder, molecules in different objects start to pack together. They become less dense, ice cold and turn into solid. For example when water is spread out, its molecules are also spread out. Water turns into ice when exposed to cold temperatures. It turns hard and dense because the particles are tightly closed together. Molecules huddle during cold temperatures to stay warm.
Humans can also stick their hands in water because they are dense than water. However, ice is denser than humans and the reason as to why water puddles is because, the molecules in water literally stick together.
In the case of alcohol, you will realize that it lacks chemical hydrogen bond like in the case of water. Therefore, its molecules do not stick together. However, it can become more or less dense depending on prevailing temperatures.
Glucose has very strong hydrogen chemical bond. This is one of the reasons as to why glucose is stuffy, sticky and always thick.
Increase in temperature therefore a decrease in density and vice versa. This is a common scenario in balloons where the mass of gas in a balloon often stays constant because it is in a closed system. What’s more, density in gases is considered directly proportional to pressure and inversely proportional to prevailing temperatures.
Therefore, it is imperative to note that prevailing temperature can cause a change in molecular structure as well as the number of molecules in given area. Even so, temperature cannot affect the number or neutrons and protons in a given atom. It is also good to note that the level in which temperature affects density varies from one object to the other.
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