Essay Writing Help on Positive Behavior Support (PBS). Examining teachers’use of Positive Behavioral Support in a Small Group Setting

Positive Behavior Support (PBS). Examining teachers’use of positive behavioral support in a Small Group Setting.

Abstract

Good classroom management strategies are of great desire for teachers. The way students are trained to conduct their studies and organize themselves into various systems is a reflection of how best they are managed and the effectiveness of the rules applied during class time as well as away from school. Managing children in early childhood stages is a tall task for most teachers as stringent yet well focused and informed rules have to be used effectively in order to ensure that the behavioural characteristics of the students are controlled and properly managed. Reinforcing positive behaviour in young children is found to help in developing confidence in them besides developing a focused mind suitable for learning environments. Positive reinforcement is used by teachers during opening sessions at the beginning of the lessons to develop confidence of the students in the subject or during class work. The best method that can be used by classroom teachers accomplish this is by instilling rules and regulations that are humble and polite to the students yet affirming compliance and corporation. This study tries to examine how teachers support positive behavior in students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom. The study is organized into various sections/chapters. Chapter one introduces the main content of the research citing the objectives, aims, research questions to be answered as well as gives the justification and significance for the research. Chapter two gives an illustrative review of the literature on the various aspects of the subject matter. The third chapter provides the methodological procedures and sample population. This section also provides the means of data acquisition and analysis and the ethical consideration. The fourth chapter presents the results of the findings while the fifth provides an elaborate discussions and analysis of the findings recorded in chapter four. The last section provides the conclusion and references as well as the appendices.    

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The education sector is a very challenging sector due to the fact that it deals with the human mind and ways of manipulating the human mind in order to come up with strategies that would be sued to achieve the best results in class. Proper management strategies are currently being sought for by teachers at various levels in order to be able to effectively address the various complexities eminent in the education sector. The younger generation composed of children in the lower grades further present’s great challenges to teachers regarding the manner in which they are taught and coordinated in class. Children in lower grades have their minds ready to absorb a variety of things from their immediate environments. It is at this stage that the development process is very high in children. Based on this background, children in the lower grades are often categorized as those that require special attention from their teachers and anyone that they come across. Even though the term special need has been controversially enshrined in the educations sector, the term has presented a lot of challenges in its definition. According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Special Education, (2006)  highlights that the primary contention is in the process of identifying the students with special needs since the term remain ambiguous among various scholars around the world. Different sectors and nations have described students that require special need/ attention in various ways depending on age and other growth factors further making service provision a continuous tussle in the educations sector. In this research study, we consider the definition by the Connecticut State Department of Education. The department has operationalized the definition by connecting the term to children with special learning needs.

 The definition was derived from a closer observance of the discrepancy that exists between students’ learning abilities and their Intelligent Quotient levels (IQ). The department categorizes students that require special attention as the existence of a discrepancy between students’ intelligence quotient score, employed as a measure of the broad learning ability and the child’s achievements when expressed as a standard score. Discrepancies still exists in identifying the students that meet these criteria as striking the balance for eligibility based on the determination of the students IQ levels and their achievements is sometimes a tall task to achieve. According to Connecticut State Department of Education, one is considered eligible is their IQ scores are significantly higher than their achievements standard scores in the domain of difficulty, a fact which many students in the lower grades meet effectively. For instance, the abilities were mainly determined using the basic reading abilities and math calculations by taking into consideration the specific students’ accuracy and speed. 

Since the emergence of the need to pay special attention to students with special needs, several methods have been developed by various persons around the world to try and design measures through which children in the lower grades can be attended to and even fulfilled in  terms of meeting their varied needs in classroom contexts. However, each method tends to address a particular requirement depending on the child’s type or form of ability. Positive reinforcement is therefore of prime necessity while trying to address the needs of young children in classroom. This research paper is based on three different methods applied by 12 teachers to identify the best positive reinforcement strategies that would be used in classroom management and their correspondent impacts on various children by performing certain tasks and engaging the children differently. For us to better understand the various methods as well as the ones used in this research, I have discussed the various factors affecting the process of learning among young students in grade two in most schools. These factors helps in defining the various forms of attention and rules to be enacted while attending to the various category of children.

1.1 Background of the study problem

Education and learning are akin and are paramount in every institution. The process of learning requires a clear mindset that is able to absorb and interpret the information being passed on in the process of leaning.  The ability to decode and encode the right phenomena requires that one has a clear and outstanding mindset. Children in second grade in schools have their minds liable to absorb a wide variety of phenomena from various quarters thus affecting the way they carry out their learning processes. While being so tough on them demoralizes their personal ego and interferes with the normal learning process, they must be put under tight rules and responsibilities since their levels of concentration are guided by rules. According to Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki, (2011), learning entails an absorption and application of the learnt rules and strategies in ones daily activities. Positive reinforcements in young children helps them to develop laterally apt by initiating confidence in them while observing the simple rules laid down to guide their operations at different levels. Learners in lower grades require special attention according to Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki (2011) definition. A special need in education refers to any factor that can obstruct learning in any perspective. Such factors are varied and many in  children and ranges from physical, mental and psychological factors that exists in a person’s life and which prevents them from executing fine details out of the learned phenomena. Among these factors, psychological factors are the most common affecting children learners from far and wide.  

The process of learning is closely tied to the mind set and the two affects each other. This is why Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki (2011) say that learning affects the mind and the mind on the other hand affects the learning process and vice versa. The minds of young children are affected by various phenomena from all over their residential places. Their attention are often interrupted by various activities occurring in classroom or even at home. They are prone to psychological influences hence require special and close attention through encouragement and developing of confidence in them.

According to the statistical analysis carried out by the World Bank, it was noticed that the number of young children joining the category of students that require specialized attention increased by 15.5 percent between 2013 and 2014. This was estimated at 9.5% increase from the year 2012. This trend is projected to increase further and amount to about 21% of all students in early childhood education programs by the year 2050. These figures are quite alarming and need a close consideration in order to determine the best ways of managing the upcoming challenge and grow a society of responsible citizens. Owing to these facts, a number of strategies and models have been developed by various experts and organizations to help in teachers and class coordinators in managing and positively building young children who fall in this category through the development of rules and regulations to help them develop proper academic aptness. This mission has however been met with challenges of resources, manpower and willingness by state organs and other related non-governmental organizations to invest in such research adventures to examine how teachers support positive behavior in young students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom as a means of developing their personalities as well as maintaining their academic qualifications.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Learning is a fundamental requirement in the life of a person. Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki (2011) observe that no improvements can take place in the life of a human being without the presence of some elements of education in them. Learning steers development in the society. Learning creates leadership qualities that are desired in every sector of the economy. Learning and education also enhances innovation and generally development in every sector of the society. For the society to develop and attain the fulfilling limits that it needs, the young generation has to be fully equipped with adequate, fulfilling and relevant education that facilitates such kinds of developments.

Education is ought to be firmly developed in the younger generation so that the foundations for development are built strongly from the beginning. It is for these reasons that the younger generation of children in lower grades should be well equipped with adequate knowledge and skills during the learning process in order to guarantee success in development from every sector. Given the fact that the younger children in early childhood education are the most vulnerable to influence from every corner. Stringent measures need to be put in place to help them develop proper life mechanisms in their education. Proper and all rounded guidance must therefore be put in place to help them develop correctly both academically and socially. In response to this, several attempts have been made to ensure that they are well catered for and receive full fledged education systems. Acting from this perspective, this research seeks to examine how teachers support positive behavior in students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom. The purpose of this research is to examine early childhood special education preserve teacher’s methods for introducing and teaching their group rules during small group instruction.

1.2.1 Broad objective

To examine how teachers support positive behavior in students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom.

1.2.2 Specific objectives

  1. To investigate the different learning needs in early childhood education
  2. To determine the sustainable strategies for teaching and managing children in lower grades
  3. To develop a teaching model for supporting positive behavior in students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom

1.3 Research aims

Increase in the number of young children attending schools is causing devastating effects in schools and other learning institutions around the globe. Many children are unable to learn effectively or even acquire suitable skills that would enable them to navigate their ways through life due improper guidance from their teachers and coordinators. Part of the reason for this lack of adequacy is inability to cope with classroom demands such as instructional provisions due to young age influences. Managing such students with special needs has arisen all over the world calling for better management strategies during classroom interactions. The main intention behind the conduct of this research is to examine how teachers can support positive behavior in students in 2nd grade by the rolls before the lesson start in the classroom as a form of positive reinforcement in young children for apt development. Such reinforcement strategies seek to help teachers effectively manage their classes equip their children with the desired level of knowledge just like their normal counterparts. This is covered in the overall aim of this research which seeks to examine early childhood special education preserve teacher’s methods for introducing and teaching their group rules during small group instruction. This approach will be used to expand education and learning activities across the world by developing suitable strategies to be used in addressing the varying needs of the category of children selected for this study.  

1.4 Delimitations and limitations of the study

The researcher took all the necessary precautions to ensure that data collected are adequate and relevant enough to make generalizations of the finding and apply these generalizations across the customer domain. The findings, even though were based on the study of just a small section of the students population as all learners in 2nd grade across the world could not be reached, was all encompassing and can be used in deriving the conclusion whether the model developed is the most appropriate in addressing the special needs for the identified groups of students. However, there are certain limitations which the study experienced and which acted as the draw backs to the collection of the relevant data generalization of the findings. Below are some of these limitations.

  1. Since the period of conducting this research is determined by the school calendar, the time stipulated was not adequate to collect all the necessary and relevant data. Some data required longer time frames to be generated adequately as the areal cover for the entire project was large. The researcher however tried to move swiftly in order to beat the timeline put in place, and collects all the necessary data required within the specified timeframe.
  2.  Researches require a lot of money to conduct especially when the area of coverage is too big. The entire community of learners with specific special needs is a generally big area with a large number of pupils which would require more funds to collect all the necessary data. This research is however single- funded and due to financial limitations, there are some equally important data that was missing out. However, the researcher tried to gather the most crucial data that would be used in analysis and generalization of the findings
  3. Making a reciprocate generalization was not easy as the most accurate sample base cannot be excellent. This generalization is therefore not all encompassing and calls for further indulgence by other researchers into the topic to come up with more finding to supplement the ones herein.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Types of specific learning special needs in children

Special learning needs in young children get manifest in various forms regardless of their cultural backgrounds, racial characteristics, language spoken, gender categories, or even the person’s socioeconomic standing. Different state departments have gone ahead to specify certain specific special learning needs to enable them deal adequately with such matters and assign better and well-informed methods of offering the best solution to the various requirements. For instance, in March 2011, the national joint committee on learning special needs pointed out certain forms of learning special needs in young children across person’s lifespan as well as precursors- most often, language delays or specifically language deficits during early childhood days. These special requirements in young children were noted to appear before the commencement of schooling and develop right into adulthood (National Joint Committee on Learning Special Needs, 2006). This research focuses its attention on to examining early childhood special education preserve teacher’s methods that can be used for introducing and teaching their group rules during small group instruction as a means of addressing all the varying needs of young children in schools and who fall into this category.

2.1.1 Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a special condition in humans that is quite distinguished from other learning and coordination requirements. Even though dyslexia is manifest in both children and adults, it is much experienced in children compared to the adults. This condition occurs at the phonological level. Dyslexia is considered a neurobiological condition that is characterized by difficulties with accurate or attaining fluent words recognition. This is characterized by poor spelling and decoding abilities. Such conditions as Miller, (2009) records are often associated with deficits stemming from phonological components of the human language systems. The deficits associated with dyslexia occur unexpectedly and in relation to the human cognitive abilities. These hinder effective delivery of classroom instructions especially among young children such as those at 2nd grade. Dyslexia has wide abounding secondary consequences that considerably affect learning and instructional activities in young children. These may include; problems with reading and understanding comprehension and passages, reduced reading experience that can lead to impediment to growth of vocabulary, as well as general reduced background knowledge in language.

According to Miller, (2009), dyslexia is a condition in human beings that is associated with problems such as reading, decoding, as well as difficulties in spelling. The assessment of decoded problems includes reading lists containing real words (i.e. pronounceable words that sometimes do not have meanings but tend to sound like English words. Such words include tat, pop, doh etc.). An exception, however, occurs in certain linguistic phenomena. As Nicpon, Allmon, Sieck, & Stinson, (2011) notes, children with dyslexia do not portray problems with listening to verbal comprehensions or logical reasoning. Young children have high absorption rates hence can easily overcome dyslexia. However, certain discrepancies have been noted with these observations. For instance, Nicpon, Allmon, Sieck, & Stinson, (2011) note that sometimes, dyslexic students can portray significant language problems such as listening and reading comprehensions. It is good to note however that not all reading problems are related to dyslexia. Other disorders such as aphasia and others that will be discussed in this paper are also responsible for causing reading problems in some children. Under certain circumstances, some students with dyslexia also portray symptoms of dysgraphia (a condition that is characterized by problems in handwriting).

Reviews on existing literature Nicpon, Allmon, Sieck, & Stinson, (2011) indicates that learning how to read requires some sort of linguistic awareness defined  as the ability to hold words in the mind for sometimes and then reflect upon some of their parts later in time. According to Kaderavek, (2011), three kinds of linguistic awareness are often associated with children with dyslexia. These include phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, as well as morphological awareness. These are examined in this project at various levels. The results are as indicated in the results and discussions section of the report. To understand these factors wholesomely, the linguistic levels mentioned above are discussed in this section.

2.1.1.1Phonological awareness

Phonological awareness is concerned with the speech sound characteristics. Research has indicated that phonological awareness is characterized by problems associated with proper understanding and awareness of spoken words commonly experienced among young children due to their vulnerability to obstruction from various sectors. Spoken words consist of speech sounds referred to as phonemes. A combination of this speech sounds (phonemes) is usually referred to as syllables. The other component of phonology is onset-rime units such as light, might, right, tight, etc. There are two common phonological awareness activities, these include 1) blending – the process of combining phonemes to form words and 2) segmentation – the process of breaking down spoken words into its constituent phonemes. Young children have difficulties with all these conditions making it quite hard for teachers and instructors to develop suitable measures that can be used in issuing instructional procedures to their students.

2.1.1.2 Orthographic awareness

Orthography is the art of writing. Orthographic studies deal with knowledge of how words and letters are combined to form words. Orthographic awareness is the sensitivity towards constraints related to identifying how letters are organized to form words. Children portraying this form of the linguistic component have problems combining various letters of phonemes in order to derive meaningful words out of them. Many young children have problems developing proper handwritings hence teachers need to begin training them at an earlier stage for proper maturity.  

2.1.1.3 Morphological awareness

Morphological characteristics are concerned with the identification of word parts and their functionality in sentences. A sentence is composed of several parts all functioning together to make meaning out of the entire construction. Morphological awareness is the ability of a person to identify word parts and to distinguish their roles in the sentence. These include morphemes – linguistic components that functions to signify meaning in words and grammatical structures such as talked, do, etc.

Studies have been conducted into finding suitable methods of teaching language to children with dyslexia. Recent researches carried out to address the same indicate that teaching reading skills should incorporate certain structural components such as explicit and systematic instructions conducted on various structural components. Such instructional components include 1) phonological awareness, 2) application of phonics using the alphabetic principles and morphology, usually used in decoding of various linguistic components, 3) application of background knowledge that has already been learned in situations involving unfamiliar words as well as concepts I the material that is to be read, 4) both oral and silent reading skills using relevant reading materials, 5) activities that develop reading fluency as well as 6) practices in reading of comprehensions (Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki, 2011).

Dyslexia is a common phenomenon among many students in schools today. According to the statistics, the number has been increasing globally at the rate of about 10 percent per annum with children in Africa, Asia, and Latin America being the most affected. There is no known form permanent cure for dyslexia. Psychologists have however suggested proper supervision and training on various linguistics phenomena as the possible ways of correcting the phenomenon.    

2.1.2 Dysgraphia or Agraphia

Dysgraphia is a disorder that is characterized by abnormalities in writing. This disorder is caused by certain damages in the neurological systems of human beings. In young children, it caused by poor coordination between the mind and the hand, a discrepancy that can be corrected at an early stage through training and proper coordination. Dysgraphia, as Kaderavek, (2011) notes affects children’s ability to write properly. Writing in its sense requires active use of both the motor as well as linguistic skills. Several writings have emerged to describe the effects of dysgraphia in human beings. Kaderavek, (2011) for instance indicates that the condition can result in difficulties associated with handwriting, spelling problems as well as difficulties with written expressions. Even though the exact causes of dysgraphia have not been fully identified, research indicates that the condition is a function of visual-spatial as well as difficulties with processing language processes and structures (Kaderavek, 2011).    

Dysgraphia mainly interferes with the students’ ability to write compositions. Students tending to forget what they have planned to write before characterize the condition. This happens since they struggle to try to remember how to connect different letters to form words and consequently construct a suitable and sensible paragraph out of the entire composition. Students suffering from dysgraphia tend to write more slowly, and their handwritings are often illegible, making it quite hard for the readers of their works to decipher meaning out of their compositions. Studies conducted in the past about the relationship between dysgraphia and handwriting Kaderavek, (2011) indicate that poor handwritings hinder the students’ ability to think properly and put down their constructions on paper. Besides, the poor handwritings also affect the students’ ability to organize knowledge into meanings, as well as haphazard arrangements of ideas. All these factors consequently affect the organization of various issues being addressed in the composition.

The people that teach students with dysgraphic condition are encouraged to focus on teaching methods that encompass explicit instructions that aid in developing proper transcription capabilities such as handwritings, keyboarding, etc. as opposed to instructions dealing only with accommodation. The main intention of developing proper handwriting and spelling accuracy in students is to ensure that the students’ attentions are drawn to orthographic word forms that appear in written forms of words as well as their constituent letters (Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki, 2011). Certain researchers such as Miller, (2009) have observed that many students that have difficulties with their handwriting often benefit from direct, explicit, and multisensory instructions as well as greater opportunities to practice. It has been found out that measures such as observations, a closer analysis of the students’ works and provision of writing assessments to other may be used to determine the choice of an appropriate instructional method to be used in teaching students with dysgrapic special need.  

2.1.3 Dyscalculia

This form of special need is related to the students’ ability to perform well in math questions by accurately remembering certain mathematical concepts, rules, formulae, certain basic computational skills and sequences of operations (Nicpon, Allmon, Sieck, & Stinson, 2011). Students that have developed dyscalculia have difficulties with understanding simple mathematical concepts, as well as the numbering systems. These are also characterized by poor understanding of the skills that form the foundation for higher order mathematical skills. Dyscalculia, not only affect the students’ abilities to perform properly in mathematics, but also affect the students’ entire academic achievements as well as daily living skills that require mathematical ability (Nicpon, Allmon, Sieck, & Stinson, 2011).

Dyscalculia manifests at different levels, portraying different levels of mathematical ability in various students. These capabilities range from mild to severe cases. As a result, students may demonstrate certain specific mathematical inabilities. For instance, some students have difficulties in remembering mathematical formulae hence cannot compute certain simple math exercises, others have difficulties remembering computational facts yet others tend to   struggle with mastering conceptual knowledge in mathematics. According to the research conducted by the National Center for Learning Special needs (NCLD) teaching students with dyscalculia should be centered on instructional practices that are systematic, explicit and provide feedback on repeated reinforcements, as well as regular practices in mathematics. Such moves are suitable for students with dyscalculia special need. It is, however, not certain how special needs in mathematics have been developed from research into the matter is still ongoing and has not yet been validated. It is for this reason that Miller, (2009) notes that there is still much that need to be done in relation to dyscalculia condition in human beings and mathematics special needs, in general.  

2.1.4 Developmental aphasia

Aphasia is known for its relationship with general linguistic development. Aphasia is a language disorder that has the tendency of affecting the students’ ability properly to understand as well as express linguistic messages. The disorder affects language learning and use in its various characteristics such as form, structure, verbal elaborations, or poor discernment of communicative intentions thus resulting in dysfunctions of the central nervous systems (Kaderavek, 2011). It is, however, good to note here that aphasia is different from speech disorders.

2.2.0 General characteristics of students in early childhood education

It is good to note that students with specific learning disparities do not have intellectual capabilities, but may sometimes portray cognitive special needs as is described in the subsequent sections of this paper. Some of the general characteristics of students in ECDE with specific learning special needs are discussed in the following sections.

2.2.1 Perception

Some students who indicate certain deficiencies in their learning abilities have perceptual problems that are characterized by difficulties in recognizing, discriminating as well as interpreting sensational especially when it comes to visual and auditory stimuli.

2.2.2 Attention

Most students in 2nd grade tend to have attention deficits arising from their young ages. In particular, they can have problems in carrying on selections for particular events or activities, as well as exhibit poor focusing of their attention on specific stimuli. These misses are considered special and important components of learning in education process.  Students who cannot control their attention have the same detracted consciences during the learning process.

2.2.3 Poor memory

Young students in lower academic levels also exhibit poor memory on important events and parts of their lives. Learning and education are dependent upon how much one can remember every given subject. Such include formulae, concepts and procedures of carrying out certain activities. Knowledge of these factors is dependent on how much the students can memorize from their subsequent classes or previous learning. This is what is referred to Miller, (2009) as the working memory of a student. Working memory as Miller, (2009) describes the ability of a person temporarily to remember as well as manipulate information from cognitive tasks that are performed by them on a daily basis. Many a times, working memory has been associated with the areas of knowledge such as reading, mathematics as well as the occurrence of written language disorders. According to Miller, (2009), working memory is an important component of learning since it helps in predicting the students’ ability to retrieve certain information that are very necessary for learning to take place.

2.2.4 Poor processing speeds

The ability of the students to process information at a higher speed determines how well they can perform in various tasks. The ability to perform huge tasks efficiently and at a faster speed is the proper determining factor of how effective and efficient the students are at learning and performance, in general. Some students have problems in processing information effectively and efficiently. Miller, (2009) observes that processing speed is the correct determining factor to grade students into those with learning disorders and those that do not have. Young children have poorly developed auditory as well as visual modes of processing information. Such deficits include both speed and capacity (Jitendra, Star, Rodriguez, Lindell, & Someki, 2011). For instance, naming speed is known to be the second deficit in students with dyslexia and consequently affect students’ fluency in mathematics and other related fields that require a lot of computation.

2.2.5 Metacognition

This is the ability of students to adjust their behavioral as well as environmental functioning capabilities in order to respond effectively to the changing academic demands in the classroom and other learning spheres. Metacognition is referred to by Miller, (2009) as one’s knowledge of the cognitive process and the process of understanding the processes that are related to such. This is what Miller, (2009) refers to as ‘thinking about thinking’. In general terms, metacognition is the knowledge of the relationship between a task and related strategies as well as the when, where and why certain choices and strategies are necessary for use under certain circumstances and not in others. 

Students that are in their early stages of academic development tend to demonstrate inadequacy with their metacognitive awareness thus are less likely to use task-relevant metacognitive approaches to solving certain tasks and learning objectives. In teaching students with such deficits, instruction that assert metacognitive learning approaches should be capitalized upon. Metacognitive strategies have been focused on by Miller, (2009) who insists that metacognitive approaches are those systems that include a systematic rehearsal of certain learning steps as well as a careful analysis and selection of relevant strategies suitable for completing certain tasks. Metacognitive approaches are used to evaluate progress results during task performance. Metacognition is very vital to academic success of a student.

2.2.6 Language

Language is used in every part of learning. The process of learning itself is characterized by language practice and development. Students in their early stages of academic life sometimes display problems with language development and mastery for use in academic contexts. According to the observations made by Miller, (2009) language delays and inappropriate use of linguistic structures are just some of the problems that students with learning special needs have portrayed over time. Specifically, students may have problems with linguistic structures such as phonology (sound systems in language), semantics (the use of vocabulary and knowledge of word meanings), syntax (the grammatical component of language), as well as in pragmatics (the social aspect of language). These linguistic structures are very important and suitable in learning environments and may impair learning if poorly developed in the lives of the students (Kaderavek, 2011).

2.2.7 Poor academic performance

It is normal that students with learning deficits will display problems with their academic pursuits. The definition of special learning needs in young children in itself highlights poor academic performance as one of the factors that characterizes those suffering the condition.

2.2.8 Social special need

Learning itself is a social phenomenon that every learner has to be engaged in. Young students with learning special needs tend to be withdrawn from society and from their peers, especially those that perform better than they do. The primary reason for this withdrawal is the fear of being despised even when such intentions are absent hence the neediest to develop confidence in them through positive reinforcement methods. Some students with learning special needs normally exhibit social deficits that in turn affect a variety of social deficits in the social sphere. 

2.2.9 Poor emotional development

Students in their early stages of development exhibit poor emotional and behavioral developments that consequently affect their social and academic performances. Even though these emotional difficulties are not the primary causes of their learning difficulties, they contribute immensely to their performance in academics and school life, in general. The Interagency Committee on Learning Special Needs (ICLD) as well as other Learning Special need (LD) organizations is in agreement with the fact that students with learning difficulties often display deficits in social skills, self-concepts, emotional development, as well as speed in processing information in the social and academic spheres. In some cases, if the behavioral and emotional problems exist over a long period and escalate to higher degrees that can have considerable adverse effects on the child’s academic performance, existing regulatory frameworks require that the eligibility teams concerned with such cases consider the determining factor of the portrayed emotional special need.    

2.3.0 Models used in addressing specific needs in early childhood education

Since the discovery of the occurrence of learning discrepancies in young children, several methods have been developed by various persons among them psychological researchers to help them illustrate these discrepancies recorded in the learning process. Some of the commonly used methods include the severe discrepancy process model, response to intervention model and the alternative research practice model. These approaches have been described in the succeeding sections of this paper.

2.3.1 Severe discrepancy process model

This model is based on the students’ ability to teach (also the students IQ) and the students’ present scores in academics. The model is guided based on a norm-referenced intelligence test as well as on academic achievements tests. If there exists a discrepancy in relating the IQ levels and the scores achieved, then a point is drawn to illustrate this discrepancy highlighting the presence of a special need related to the processing deficits in the cognitive perspective. In such cases, the student will be identified as a student with a specific learning need.

However, the method cannot be used alone in grading students as either student with the learning special need or not since, it fails to address certain important factors. For instance; 1) the method does not explain with the identified students have a learning discrepancy or have poor academic performance just because of poor instructions, testing at their grade levels and other related factors that may lead to genuine students failure in academics. 2) The method has been granted the discriminatory tag by not taking into consideration the students outside the mainstream culture as well as the differences in intellectual capabilities of different students without necessarily being affected by any form of learning special need. 3) The method further does not take into consideration the fact that children who are low achievers tend to have similar characteristics without necessarily having high or low IQ scores. 4) The discrepancy formula is observed to vary from place to place with no uniformity in marking the various types of discrepancies. 

2.3.2 Response to intervention model

This approach consists of a multi-tiered approach to intervention that incorporates scientifically based instructions, tiered interventions and support, students’ progress monitoring, as well as fidelity of the implementation process. The amount of data generated by this method is useful in determining if other evaluation models are required for a conclusive remark over the matter addressed. The data used in the RtI are based on the assumption that the students’ lack of proper academic progress is not as a result of inappropriate instructions or other related factors such as cultural diversity or linguistic barriers but rather as a result of a occurrence of a specific learning special need.

2.3.3 Alternative research-based approach (the third-method)

This approach is based on an evaluation of the students’ performance in order to realize the areas of weaknesses as described in the definition of learning disorders. The data to be used in this process as Miller, (2009) notes is suppose to include the specific academic performances as well as basic psychological process deficits as defined in the IDEA’s definition of learning special needs. The approach works under an assumption that a student has at least an average level of general intelligence, and any discrepancy is as a result of the existence of a learning special need. The alternative research-based approach or third-method is supported and recommended by the IDEA for its soundness in addressing the issues of concern in the recognition of a learning special need in an individual   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study design

This study takes an experimental design whereby various models were experimented by a group of 12 early childhood teachers to determine the best method of teaching children with special needs in early childhood education.  A number of models were experimented on group of children in order to come up with the best procedure for carrying out the teaching process. Careful undertakings were however ensured to make it certain that any form of biases did not crop into the findings obtained from this research during the experimentation process.

3.2 Data collection and analysis

This section discusses the various methodological procedures that were followed while carrying out the research to determine various learning special needs in various students. The program utilized a multifaceted approach in order to determine the specific forms of learning special needs in various individuals. The entire research is experimental in nature and organized students into various categories with each category being treated to different methodologies in order to yield different results that were later compared alongside the known special needs. In this way, various special needs existing in various students were identified and illustrated in this report as will be explained in the subsequent sections.

3.3 Study population

The sample population that was used in this study was drawn from a variety of sources within the study area. The sample population included students in the early childhood education sector. The students were drawn from pre-primary school in the same grade. All children selected had specific learning special needs ranging from psychological to physical special needs.

3.4 Sampling methods

The students population used in the practicum were selected at random from the same class and with different forms of special needs. Random sampling helped in removing the biases. The chosen class where the samples were drawn was purposively identified based on the level of academics and variety of special need cases represented. A total of 100 children were included in the practicum lessons. Group inclusions were purposively identified based on the types of special needs pre-identified through counseling and close observations on the children’s behavioura characteristics. Each practicum lesson comprised of 3 – 5 students chosen on the basis of their special needs.       

3.4.1 Participant’s Methodology and Setting

Twelve current early childhood teachers participated in this study. The teachers were all Elementary Early Childhood Educators; four were special education instructors.  The emphasis of this study was on conditional licenses, which allows teachers to engage in their careers while completing all requirements for certification within a two-year time.  The experience level of the teacher varied from 1 to 27 years, with an average of 6.5 year’s teaching.

At the time of this research, all 12 teachers had undertaken the practicum that is a prerequisite for certification. Methods courses complement well with the practicum, and the teachers enrolled in some method courses focusing on management, curriculum and assessment. As the teachers were engaged in the practicum, they taught small group lessons ranging between 2-5 students per group, with an average of 3 students in each group. Each practicum covered around 25 lessons as the students encompassed young children aged between 3-5 years. As a requirement, one student in each group has an IEP. Table 1 provides an overview of the students’ ages and classroom rules.

Table 1 Description of Students in Small Groups

Teacher ID # Children # Ages Content Area Rules
1 4 children 5 years Reading comprehension Listening ears                   Sit on pockets                                   Raise your hand    Take a turn
2 5 children 4-5 years Lower case letter Look with your eyes         Use nice hands and feet Listen with your ears        Talk nicely
3 4 children 4 – 5 years Counting to 10 Nice words                       Nice touch                                                           Wait for your turn            Do your work
4 5 children  3-4 years Recognizing numbers 1-10 Voice is quiet                   Body is calm                                            Eyes and ears ready                              Raise your hand and share your answer
5 4 children 4-5 years Name writing Eyes on speaker               Ears Listening                                       Hands and feet quiet        Raise quiet hand
6 5 children 3-4 years Colors Look, Listen, Speak softly, touch gently, walking feet
7 4 children  3-4 years Writing name Participate in the writing activity     Stay in the small group area           Share materials
8 4 children 5 years Assess for skills                        The skill is letter recognition Eyes are on the speaker     Voices quiet                                              Ears are listening               Sit in the seat
9 4 children 4 years Pretest Uppercase Letters A-J Look at the teacher            Hands to yourself                                 Raise your hand
10 4 children 3 years Recognizing colors Look into your eyes         Use hands and feet                      Listen with your ears        Talk nicely
11 5 children 3-4 years Literacy Talk nicely                         Look with your eyes                              Listen with your ears        Use nice hands and feet
12 4 children 3-4 years Sight word Keep your body in your seat                       Use listening ears Keep working

Each teacher submitted two videotaped instructional lessons for the purpose of feedback in lesson delivery and planning.  The researcher for the following conditions evaluated these: Review, Instruction, Model, Practice, and Feedback. In Review, the teacher would introduce and familiarize the children with the rules at the beginning of the lesson. In Instruction, the teacher provides additional information to help children perform the rules successfully, by explaining why they are important and how to complete them. In Model, the teacher used a standard or example for imitation. In Practice, the teacher provided opportunities for the children to demonstrate or perform a skill. In Feedback, the teacher offered evaluative comments after the practice of the rules. Recorded footage was submitted on the first lesson (Lesson 3) that they completed with their small group at the beginning of the practicum and a lesson from the end of the practicum (Lesson 10). The teachers also submitted lesson plans for each of these lessons, which included a review of teaching and evaluation of student learning. Table 2 provides definitions and examples of the methods.

Table 2: Definitions and Example of Methods Coded

             Method                     Definition Example
Review   The teacher introduces and familiarizes children with the rules of the beginning of the lessons. Teacher states or has children state one or more rules.
Instruction         The teacher provides additional information to help children learn to perform the rules successfully. –           Rationale why this important –           Explanation of how to perform the skills “It is important to use our eyes so we can look to our teacher.”
Model         The teacher used a standard or example for imitation or comparison to showing the student what the rules look like. The teachers showing the students what they should do by demonstrating the rules by herself and she said, “look at me I’m raising my hand if I want to talk.”
Practice   The teacher provides opportunities for the children to demonstrate or perform a skill. “Raise your hand if you want to talk and show me your hand raising.”
Feedback     For the children practice of rules – after the children perform “the practice the rules, the teacher make evaluative comments”. “Good job” or” no-show me how I do it and do it again.”

3.4.2 Experimental Methodology and Measures

A descriptive research design was used in this study. The research neither implemented an intervention nor was emphasis placed on collecting baseline data. The study’s purpose was to evaluate and assess teachers’ practices intended to steer the formation of desired behavior among students in a small group setting. The course as well as the management plans emphasized the available strategies for teachers who seek to deal with the wide array of behaviors manifested in children.

Data collection occurred as teachers videotaped and submitted lessons. Data was collected based on five practices: review, instruction, model, practice, and feedback. This data was based on the two management plans that teachers submitted.  Each management plan contained distinct elements seeking to create desired behavior in children.

The first management plan reported information relating to the students ages, names, group rules, and a stipulation of how the teachers planned to introduce the plans. This includes reviewing, providing instructions, modeling or practicing the management plan for easier inception. In this management plan, the teacher indicated the expectations in rules chart to give the students an achievable target. The rules were always on display and visible to the children, seeking to reinforce and motivate their abilities to change and conform to the expected results. The second management plan encompasses the students’ names, ages, group rules, and a three model approaches on how the teacher would nurture the positive relationships. In this management plan, the teacher would still display the rules chart. This way both management and teachers could easily assess the development status attained by students over a specified period and see the specific events that motivate individual students.  Table 3 establishes the management plans used by the teachers.

Table 3: Analysis of Data for Lesson 3

# Review   Instruction     Model     Children practice     Feedback for child practice     Visual Chart   Statement of Consequence Time (sec)
1 100% 0% 25% 25% 100% YES YES 62
2 100% 100% 75% 0% 0% YES YES 60
3 100% 100% 100% 50% 0% YES YES 235
4 100% 0% 100% 100% 100% YES YES 69
5 100% 50% 100% 100% 50% YES YES 62
6 100% 0% 100% 100% 0% YES YES 47
7 66% 0% 66% 66% 33% YES YES 60
8 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% YES YES 15
9 100% 0% 33% 66% 33% YES YES 42
10 100% 0% 75% 75% 25% YES YES 60
11 75% 0% 50% 100% 25% YES YES 63
12 100% 100% 33% 66% 0% YES YES 60
Avg 95% 37% 71% 62% 30% 100% 100% 69%

After this data had been collected, the videos were watched. For each teacher, data was gathered on the video for Lesson 3 and Lesson 10. The videos were observed to see if the teachers utilized each of the five methods, whether the teacher presented a visual chart of the rules for good behavior, and whether the teacher offered a statement of consequences for breaking those rules. These were observed for the first five minutes at the beginning of the lessons. Time was measured in seconds to see how long teachers displayed the visual and offered the statement of consequence. Table 3 demonstrates the analysis of data from the videos of lesson 3 and Table 4 demonstrates the analysis of data from the videos of lesson 10. Table 5 represents the percentage of rules addressed regarding the methods coded.

Table 4: Analysis of Data for Lesson 10

  # Review   Instruction     Model     Children practice     Feedback for child practice   Visual Chart Statement of Consequence Time (sec)
1 100% 25% 50% 25% 0% YES YES 58
2 100% 25% 25% 0% 0% YES YES 33
3 100% 0% 50% 50% 25% YES YES 127
4 100% 100% 75% 100% 25% YES YES 53
5 100% 25% 75% 100% 0% YES YES 58
6 100% 0% 75% 75% 0% YES YES 31
7 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% YES YES 44
8 100% 50% 50% 100% 25% YES YES 55
9 100% 75% 0% 75% 0% YES YES 87
10 100% 25% 75% 75% 75% YES YES 86
11 100% 100% 100% 75% 25% YES YES 68
12 100% 33% 33% 33% 100% YES YES 70
Avg 100% 38% 50% 59% 22% 100% 100% 64%

Table 5: Percentage of Rules Applied

  Lesson 3 Lesson 10
ID # Review Instruction Model Child Practice Feedback Review Instruction Model Child Practice Feedback
1 100 0 25 25 100 100 25 50 25 0
2 100 100 75 0 0 100 25 25 0 0
3 100 100 100 50 0 100 0 50 50 25
4 100          0 100 100 100 100 100 75 100 25
5 100         50 100 100 50 100 25 75 100          0
6 100          0 100 100         0 100 0 75 75 0
7 66 0 66 66        33 100 0 0 0 0
8 100        100 100       0         0 100 50 50 100 25
9 100          0 33      66        33 100 75 0 75 0
10 100 0 75 75 25 100 25 75 75 75
11 75          0 50 100 25 100 100 100 75 25
12 100        100 33 66 0 100 33 33 33 100
Avg. 95% 37% 71% 62% 30% 100 % 38% 50% 59% 22%

3.5 Mechanisms to assure quality of the study

Suitable mechanisms were put in place to ensure that the data used in this study was of high quality and meet the standard requirements and that the information provided here is valid and satisfy the scientific requirements. The study population was randomly identified in order to remove biases due to researcher’s preferences. The samples were allowed to act at free will without any form of manipulation. This ensured that the data generated here was sound enough to aid in decision making and suitable for the development of the model.

3.6 Ethical consideration

This study involved vulnerable populations who are the minors under age of 10 thus the study considered their special needs so as to avoid putting them at risk. An informed consent form was developed for the participants’ parents/guardians and teachers to sign before they engage in the research. This form acknowledged that the participants’ rights had been protected during the data collection. This form clearly stated the participant’s right to voluntarily participate and the right to withdraw at any time so that the participant is not being coerced into participation. It also clearly stated the purpose of the study so that the participant understands the nature of the research and its likely impact on him/her. The research was explained to the participants clearly and simply so that the implications of taking part (including issues of confidentiality, anonymity and data ownership) are understood (See Appendix 3).

Secondly, I considered from whom the consent should be sought. Regardless of children’s special needs to make informed decisions, adults also have obligations to their own children. Thus consent from the family members and specifically the parents/ guardians was sought. However gaining consent from adult gatekeepers did not necessarily mean that the child was willing to participate. The chosen children were able to decide whether or not they want to take part. And in order to avoid situations where children felt like they must participate because their parents/guardians have agreed to the research, I asked the children to make their own independent decision on whether they wanted to participate in this study or not. All the children I approached agreed to participate in the study.

Finally, all the children were assigned pseudonyms to conceal their identity.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS

The results of this study were recorded during the first lesson of experimentation (lesson 3) and at the last lesson of experimentation (lesson 10). The results were recorded in the three stages of research (planning, review, instruction and analysis stages) as illustrated in the earlier sections of this paper. The planning results for the experimental procedure were graphed as shown in graph 1 below.

Result 1: planning results

 The planning section included both the review and instruction sections of the methodology. The results were graphically represented (graph 1) and tabulated as in Table 6 below. 91% of the students understood the review in lessons 3 and 10. Only 66% understood the instructions properly in lesson 3 as opposed to 41% for lesson 10. A higher percentage of the students practiced well at the model and practice levels during lesson 3 at 83% and 73% respectively but gave low feedbacks at 16% on their correct understanding of the instructions compared to lesson

10 at 58% and 66% at the model and practice levels respectively and 66% positive feedbacks on the instructions received. 100% of the students practiced the instructions of the model correctly as explained by the teachers at the review level in both lessons 3 and 10. The requirements of the model were also executed at 100% rate in lesson 3 and 83% in lesson 10. However, the feedback results from the students on their practices of the model’s requirements seemed to have declined in both lesson 3 and 10 at 58% and 50% levels of accuracy respectively. The results were also tabulated as shown in Table 7 below;

Table 7: practice results for lesson 3 and 10

Teachers #   Children # & Ages   Content area   Rules Planned for Introducing Rules    
Lesson 3 Lesson 10  
     
1 4 children 5 years Reading comprehension Listening ears                                              Sit on pockets                                    Raise your hand                                     Take a turn Review Instruction Model Have children practice     Review         Have children practice Provide feedback  
2 5 children 4-5 years Lower case letter Look with your eyes                               Use nice hands and feet Listen with your ears                              Talk nicely Review  Instruction  Model Have children practice   Review Instruction Model Have children practice Give feedback  
3 4 children 4 – 5 years Counting to 10 Nice words                                                            Nice touch                                                           Wait for your turn                                                Do your work Review    Model Have children practice   Review Instruction Model        
4 5 children  3-4 years Recognizing number 1-10 Voice is quiet                                           Body is calm                                            Eyes and ears ready                              Raise your hand and share your answer Review Instruction Model                                                                    Have children practice Provide feedback Review       Have children practice Provide feedback  
5 4 children 4-5 years Name writing Eyes on speaker                                       Ears listening                                        Hands and feet quiet                             Raise quiet hand Review Instruction Model Have children practice                                      Give feedback Review       Have children practice                                      Give feedback  
6 5 children 3-4 years Colors Look, Liston, speak softly, touch gently, walling feet Review Instruction Model Have Children practice       Instruction Model        
7 4 children  3-4 years Writing name Participate in the writing activity     Stay in the small group area           Share materials Review       Have children practice     Review     Model    Have children practice Provide feedback    
8               4 children 5 years Assessment of skills                        The skills is letter recognition Eyes are on the speaker                     Voices quiet                                             Ears are listening                                                  Sit in the seat Review        Model       Review   Model Have children practice   Provide feedback  
9 4 children 4 years Pretest Uppercase Letters A-J Look at the teacher                               Hands to yourself                                  Raise your hand Review                                                               Model Have children practice   Review Instruction            
10 4 children 3 years Recognizing colors Look with your eyes                               Use your hands and feet                      Listen with your ears                              Talk nicely Review Instruction     Have children practice   Review Instruction     Have children practice Provide feedback  
11   5 children 3-4 years Literacy Talk nicely                                              Look with your eyes                               Listen with your ears                              Use nice hands and feet   Instruction                                                                  Model                                                                         Give feedback Review   Model        
12                 4 children 3-4 years Sight word Keep your body in your seat Use listening ears Keep working Review Instruction Model       Review   Model Have children practice Provide feedback    
       
  Teachers   School   Lesson 3   Lesson 10
      12       Kindergarten school Review 11 %91 Review 11 %91  
Instruction 08 %66 Instruction 05 %41  
Model 10 %83 Model 07 %58  
Have children practice 09 %75 Have children practice 08 %66  
Give feedback 02 %16 Give feedback 08 %66  

Teacher Lesson 3     Visual Chart Used? Time         Time
Teacher # Lesson 3 Lesson 10   Lesson 3 Lesson 10
    1 Review   Model Have children practice Provide feedback Review Instruction Model Have children practice       Yes       62     58
    2 Review  Instruction  Model       Review Instruction Model           Yes       60     33
    3 Review  Instruction Model Have children practice   Review   Model Have children practice Provide feedback     Yes       235     127
    4 Review   Model                                                                    Have children practice Provide feedback Review   Instruction Model Have children practice Provide feedback     Yes       69     53
    5 Review Instruction Model Have children practice                                      Give feedback Review Instruction Model   Have children practice                                            Yes       62     58
    6 Review   Model Have Children practice     Review   Model Have children practice                 Yes               47             31
    7 Review     Model Have children practice   Provide feedback Review               Yes       60     44
    8 Review      Instruction Model       Review Instruction Model Have children practice   Provide feedback     Yes       15     55
    9 Review      Model Have children practice Provide feedback Review Instruction         Have children practice         Yes       42     87
    10 Review     Model   Have children practice Provide feedback Review Instruction Model   Have children practice Provide feedback     Yes       60     86
    11 Review   Model Have children practice                                                                       Give feedback Review Instruction Model   Have children practice   Give feedback     Yes       63     68
    12   Review Instruction Model Have children practice       Review Instruction Model Have children practice Provide feedback       Yes       60     70
  Lesson 3   Lesson 10   Visual Chart Used?   Time  
  Lesson 3   Lesson 10  
  12 Review 12 %100 Review 12 %100         100%100     835         770  
Instruction 05 %41 Instruction 09 %75  
Model 12 %100 Model 10 %83       69%       64%  
Have children practice 10 %83 Have children practice 10 %83  
Give feedback 07 %58 Give feedback 06 %50  

Results 3: percentage of the rules addressed by each practice

The accuracy in the practice of model rules was found to be lower during the review and instructions stages in lesson 3 at 95%, and 37% compared to lesson 10 at 100% and 38%. However, the percentage of rules practiced was high at the model stage but decreased systematically with the practice and feedback levels for lesson 3 at 71%, 62% and 30% respectively compared lesson 10 at 50%, 59% and 22% at the same stages respectively. The results were also tabulated as shown in Table 8 below;

Table 8: Percentage of rules addressed in each practice

Teachers Lesson 3 Lesson 10
# Review Instruction Model Child Practice Feedback Review Instruction Model Child Practice Feedback
1 100 0 25 25 100 100 25 50 25 0
2 100 100 75 0 0 100 25 25 0 0
3 100 100 100 50 0 100 0 50 50 25
4 100          0 100 100 100 100 100 75 100 25
5 100         50 100 100 50 100 25 75 100          0
6 100          0 100 100         0 100 0 75 75 0
7 66 0 66 66        33 100 0 0 0 0
8 100        100 100       0         0 100 50 50 100 25
9 100          0 33      66        33 100 75 0 75 0
10 100 0 75 75 25 100 25 75 75 75
11 75          0 50 100 25 100 100 100 75 25
12 100        100 33 66 0 100 33 33 33 100
Total 1141 450 857 748 366 1200 458 608 708 275
Average 95% 37% 71% 62% 30% 100% 38% 50% 59% 22%

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 

The teachers used different planning methods to help them in discerning the best procedure to be followed while issuing instructions using the various models of choice. The procedure for carrying out a specific learning approach is akin to the results generated. The best procedure generates the best results and vice versa. The teachers used different systematic procedures for the models used in order to determine the best procedure that worked best for each model. This difference made the results to vary significantly for each teacher and each model as shown in the results section (Table 6) and graph1 above. The planned procedures were different from the results generated from the video since different students understood the instructions differently hence portrayed different interpretations on the video notations. A higher percentage of the students were found to have a clear understanding of the instructions on each model as they were reviewed by the teachers during the planning period (see graph 1 and table 6).

The planned instructions were however practiced correctly by a smaller number of students with even the least number of students being able to give positive feedbacks on the planned sets of instructions and practices given by the teachers based on the various models used. According to the results generated by these practices, the models were well understood by the students. However, fewer were able to practice the contents correctly. This affected the feedback from such practices. Only an average of 30% of the students was able to use the models to perform the tasks appropriately. This low turn feedback relayed by the students could be attributed to barriers to learning such as the occurrence of specific learning special needs, cultural barriers such as language and complexity of the models in addressing the particular issues of concern. The results are a shown in Table 9 and 10 below;

Table 9: Analysis of Lesson 3

  #   Teacher Name   Review   Instruction     Model     Children practice     Feedback for child practice     Visual Chart   Statement of Consequence   Time
1 Amy Stockseth 100% 0% 25% 25% 100% YES YES 62
2 Carrie Calhoon 100% 100% 75% 0% 0% YES YES 60
3 Crystal Boggs 100% 100% 100% 50% 0% YES YES 235
4 Jennifer Jansen 100% 0% 100% 100% 100% YES YES 69
5 Jennifer Schreck 100% 50% 100% 100% 50% YES YES 62
6 Kacee Jensen 100% 0% 100% 100% 0% YES YES 47
7 Karly Burns 66% 0% 66% 66% 33% YES YES 60
8 Kay Staley 100% 100% 100% 0% 0% YES YES 15
9 Keisha Aberson 100% 0% 33% 66% 33% YES YES 42
10 Lynn Weringe 100% 0% 75% 75% 25% YES YES 60
11 Sally Wolfe 75% 0% 50% 100% 25% YES YES 63
12 Stephonie Troncoso 100% 100% 33% 66% 0% YES YES 60
  Total 1,141 450 857 748 366 100% 100% 835
Average 95% 37% 71% 62% 30% 100% 100% 69%

   Table 10: Analysis of Lesson 10

        Teacher Name   Review   Instruction     Model     Children practice     Feedback for child practice     Visual Chart   Statement of Consequence   Time
1 Amy Stockseth 100% 25% 50% 25% 0% YES YES 58
2 Carrie Calhoon 100% 25% 25% 0% 0% YES YES 33
3 Crystal Boggs 100% 0% 50% 50% 25% YES YES 127
4 Jennifer Jansen 100% 100% 75% 100% 25% YES YES 53
5 Jennifer Schreck 100% 25% 75% 100% 0% YES YES 58
6 Kacee Jensen 100% 0% 75% 75% 0% YES YES 31
7 Karly Burns 100% 0% 0% 0% 0% YES YES 44
8 Kay Staley 100% 50% 50% 100% 25% YES YES 55
9 Keisha Aberson 100% 75% 0% 75% 0% YES YES 87
10 Lynn Weringe 100% 25% 75% 75% 75% YES YES 86
11 Sally Wolfe 100% 100% 100% 75% 25% YES YES 68
12 Stephonie Troncoso 100% 33% 33% 33% 100% YES YES 70
  Total 1,200 458 608 708 275 100% 100% 770
Average 100% 38% 50% 59% 22% 100% 100% 64%

The feedback from the practice was found to be lower in lesson 10 than in lesson 3, at 22% compared to 30% for lesson 3. The students forgot most of the rules in the later parts of the study, lesson 10 and hence remitted poor feedbacks. Poor memorization of the concepts and the necessary rules was the most likely hindrances to poor feedback. It was also noticed that the longer the lesson period, the poorer was the feedback generated from the practice and vice versa. Longer study hours affect children’s levels of concentration hence the poor practice of the rules and consequently low feedbacks generated from the practice. Shorter lesson sessions on the other hands seemed to generate highly relevant results as the students were able to concentrate effectively. Again this could as well be attributed the presence of some specific learning special needs in the majority of the students as such special need conditions affect the levels of concentration and consequently low feedback from the practice.

For the models to be fully understood and put into practice, the students had to be made aware of the rules required to the followed. The teachers therefore found it suitable to review the rules together in class to acquaint the students with the necessary plan of action. Learning process is a stepwise activity that is undertaken at various stages and levels. It is, therefore, necessary that all the rules and instructions that are undertaken by the students are well understood for them to act appropriately in response to the demands. The methods review, instructions, model, practice, and feedback is, therefore, the most applicable system of issuing instructions in the research to enable the students perform the necessary functions during class time. 

Conclusion

An increasing number of students streaming into various schools suffer from specific learning special needs due to their young ages. Learning special requirements vary from one child to another depending on the types of deficits displayed by each. The presence of students with young minds and ages is getting to the knowledge of the ruling authorities as well as other internationally recognized non-governmental organizations. Appropriate measures and regulatory frameworks are being laid down to help students with special learning needs to accomplish their academic goals in young children. It is for this reason that various models and rules have been developed for use in teaching and giving instructions to students with special needs to ensure that they attain the best of results necessary for their academic pursuits. This project has looked at the suitability of various models used by a group of 12 early childhood educators to help them issue instructions to various groups of children. The effectiveness of each model is then determined to discern the best for specific groups of children.   

                                               References

Jitendra, A. K., Star, J. R., Rodriguez, M., Lindell, M., & Someki, F. (2011). Improving students’ proportional thinking using schema-based instruction. Learning and Instruction, 21, 731-745.

Kaderavek, J. N. (2011). Language disorders in children: Fundamental concepts of assessment and intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Miller, S. P. (2009). Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and abilities (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

National Joint Committee on Learning Special needs. (2006). Learning special needs and young children: Identification and intervention. Learning Special need Quarterly, 30, 63-72.

Nicpon, M. F., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., & Stinson, R. (2011). Empirical investigation of twice exceptionality Where have we been and where are we going. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55, 3-17.

APPENDIX 1

RESEARCH WORK PLAN

  ACTIVITY   STARTING TIME     COMPLETION TIME   DURATION
Conceptualization of the Study Problem October 2012 January 2012 4 months
Proposal Writing   February 2013 June 2013 5 months
Proposal Presentation   11, July 2013 12, July 2013 2 days
Correction of Proposal Presentation 12, July 2013 September 2013 2 months
Pilot Study   October 2013 October 2013 1 month
Data Collection (QUAN) November 2013 December 2013 2 months
Data Analysis (QUAN) I, January 2014 31, January 2014 1 month
Data Collection (QUAL) February 2014 April 2014 3 months
Data Analysis (QUAL) May 2014 July 2014 3 months
Report Writing and Corrections August 2014 September 2014 2 months
Thesis Submission   June 2015    
Total Duration October 2012 June 2015 30 months


APPENDIX 2

BUDGET

Below is a budget outlay for conducting the study

  ACTIVITY     COST (USD)
Preparation of the Project Proposal   700
Preparation of Questions   40
Computer Services   100
Photocopying Services   500
Proof-Reading and Binding   350
Travelling (General)   1500
Contingency Cost(Miscellaneous Expenses)   500
Total (USD)   3690

Appendix 3

CERTIFICATE OF CONSENT

I have been asked to allow the students in my school to participate in a study which aims at developing an appropriate model for teaching children with specific learning special needs in early childhood education in A1 Location and I voluntarily permit him/her to participate in the study.

   

Name of Participant    ____________________        Thumb Print of Participant

Signature of the witness

Date­­­

Statement by the researcher/person taking consent

I have accurately read out the information sheet to the potential participant, and to the best of my ability made sure that the participant understands that the following will be done:

  1. The participant will participate in the structured one-on-one interview
  2. The participant might be asked to participate in the unstructured interview and
  3. The researcher might carry out participant observation

I confirm that the participant was given an opportunity to ask questions about the study, and all the questions asked by the participant have been answered correctly and to the best of my ability. I confirm that the individual has not been coerced into giving consent and that consent has been given freely and voluntarily.

A copy of this ICF has been provided to the participant.

Name of the Researcher______________________________________________

Signature of Researcher______________________________________________

Date______________________________________