Essay Writing Help on Dependency and Modernization Theories

Political Science Questions

Essay 1A

Dependency and Modernization Theories.

These theories seek to answer the issue of underdevelopment especially in the third world countries that faced colonial rule. The dependency theory is based on the view that globalization came about through market capitalism where the west exploits cheap labor and other resources in developing nations in exchange for obsolete or poor technology (Mehhmet). Simply, dependency theorists believe that rich nations depend on labor from poor countries.

Modernization theory, on the other hand, is based on the view that developing countries embarked on new strategies of development after colonialism where industrialization efforts were meant to catch up with the west. According to this theory, most difficulties experienced in the third world are due to external factors such colonialism, multi-national companies, and western-influenced financial companies. However, there is no clear-cut difference between modern and traditional cultures, and still, there is no concern of traditional values that contribute to development (Mehhmet).

Modifying the dependency theory

There has been a mentality that the third world is considered to be poor and underdeveloped. The general notion is that developing nations have no skills and resources to enable them come out of poverty, hence it will always remain underdeveloped no matter the policies and efforts. This mentality has changed over time now since most developing countries have employed strategies to steer them towards development.

The third world countries have formulated effective state policies and strategic partnerships, which are supported through obtaining loans, credits, and foreign investments. This has enhanced industrialization through engaging in trade and technology transfers, thereby, modifying the dependency theory.

Modifying the modernization theory

This theory has undergone quite a number of changes According to the theory, a political society which is strong is crucial in enhancing economic growth due to coercive powers and authority. Authoritarian regimes, therefore, are necessary since they are in a better position to bring about social order in the society where different groups compete for the economic and social resources available.

In addition, the reconciliation theory which is concerned with policies that can be used to attain democracies, and economic development and stability has modified this one. The theory, therefore, looks into possible issues or factors that derail development and try to find remedies for those factors that hurt development.

Trends in the developing world that prompted changes in Modernization and Dependency theories

The application of new technology in developing countries is a major trend that has prompted changes in the two theories. In most scenarios, technology has been recognized but not put into use. In the modernization theory, the use of the technologies applied in developed countries by the third world countries has made it possible for society to be termed creative. The technology has made developing countries to evolve economically, socially and industrially.

Concerning the dependency theory, developed countries are using technology as a strategy to exploit the developing countries. They offer their outdated technologies to developing countries in the name of assisting, but in real sense, their objectives are to exploit the limited resources available in those countries. This has facilitated the changes in this theory, in that; the developing countries are looking for ways to avoid such exploitations.

Globalization, which is the integration of political, social, and economic cultures in the world, has propelled changes in the two theories. Good communication networks around the world have enabled changes to occur to the modernization theory. At the moment, information is transferred at a high speed leading to quicker operation handling as compared to the past. Online services have contributed a lot to the globalization aspect, which has brought about changes in dependency theory, as developing countries are no longer relying on developed countries for technological advances, but instead the internet. This information can be applied within the revised theories’ coverage to boost development in the developing countries. Therefore, due to globalization the world has been reduced into a global village.

Democratization has been a rising trend in most developing countries. Due to democratization, the developing countries have changed in terms of urbanization, education, wealth, and even industrialization. This has propelled changes in the theories of development. Democracy in the developing countries has promoted social cultural integrations in that the conditions for the foundation of democracy are based upon economic development and modernization. Now that the people are able to share views freely, it has promoted formulation of good decisions and rapid changes to the two theories as the views of all people can be well-represented (Handel man).

Essay 2A

Rural-urban migration has been on the rise over the past years especially in developing nations. Most people move from their rural areas that are usually subject to abject poverty hoping to find greener pastures in urban areas. Urban centers are attractive since they are associated with job opportunities, business activities, and social utilities compared to remote rural areas. This is the reason why most urban areas record big populations that were not there before. Therefore, migrants have various needs that drive them to towns and cities, and there is possible impact of the migration on the political system and the economic growth (Handelman).

Needs of urban migrants

To earn better living and escape poverty. Rural areas are often associated with high poverty levels whereby small-scale subsistence farmers characterize them. The farmers barely make a living out of their small-scale activity since they often have to support large families. Most resources from the government may not go to these places, leaving locals without materials that can improve their lives. Going to the city, therefore, gives them the chance to access most of the country’s resources and the labor markets towards enhancing their way of living.

Access to job opportunities in urban centers. Most young people go to capitals and major towns to seek employment. Studies show that most of the urban migrant job seekers are learned, and they migrate because of the high probability that they will be hired in the urban areas and speculated higher earnings. The formal sector that is sought by both city dwellers and migrants pays better than the informal sector. However, migrants face cut-throat competition on formal jobs because most people in urban centers have higher levels of education.

Seeking better and higher education. It is common in most developing countries to find rural areas that have limited or no access to education. Some of these areas are forgotten when it comes to education. This calls for rural people to send their children in urban centers where there are plenty of educational facilities so as get education and make careers; and most of them remain in these urban areas to seek employment. Lack of education is the reason why rural areas face poverty and poor resource use.

To seek better urban life due to biased government policies and migration forces. Employment opportunities and increased wage rates are usually to the advantage of the urban dwellers. The biasness often creates an imbalance that makes life in urban areas more attractive and comfortable compared to rural life. This makes rural people to prefer to move to urban areas to seek solace as through government action that makes life in the areas better off.

Either, migration forces such as family disagreements, and wars and fights with neighbors in the rural areas may call for people to run way to the urban centers whereby there is some peace. People would always move to avoid such social conflicts because away in the urban centers they will avoid them.

Effects of migrant needs on political system

Rural-urban migration is a benefit and a cost to the policy makers of any given country. The benefit derived is that there is more workers and wide market in the urban centers that eventually boost economic growth. However, urban migrants are a major drawback in growing cities and towns as policy makers find them as a key obstruction to economic development. When migrants come into urban areas, there is possible increase in population to high levels and consequently congestion that translates to slum dwelling. Policy makers, therefore, get a hard time trying to enhance proper housing in the urban center.

Higher rates of migration, either, causes chronic unemployment that exposes the urban areas to higher levels of criminology as people try all means to put food at their tables. There is a high chance for congestion that in turn wastes many resources, as well. For example, a city that experiences congestions of people and traffic faces the problems of resource wasting i.e. time and fuel used as people are stagnated and cannot move due to human and traffic jams. Urban areas are also likely to experience inadequate social amenities and facilities due to overpopulation. Simply, overcrowded urban centers are susceptible to negative externalities that are a possible cause of the market failure (Handelman).

Essay 3B

How climatic change will influence the developing world

Climate change is the change in the distribution of weather patterns that lasts for an extended period. Climatic changes may arise due to natural causes, volcanic activity or human causes. Climatic change has severe effects on the developing countries, as it will threaten food security, nutrition and agriculture, education, access to energy, and water and sanitation (Handelman).

Extreme weather conditions, and gradual climate risk will affect all sectors of food security and nutrition in developing countries in many ways, for instance, they will decrease food production. Due to limited food supply, the standards of living of people will go down as poverty rate increases. There will be food insecurity in developing world, which will hinder the economic sustaining status of many countries. This is because almost all developing countries depend mainly on agriculture as their main economy stay.            

There will be a serious disruption of school progress, drawing critical concern to shift vulnerable effects on school development; this will be due to extended harsh climatic conditions, which are unbearable to young children and especially adolescents. Children from poor families will be the most affected by these extended climatic conditions. Frequent occurrence and increase in intensity of drought will reduce learning time and migration among communities will limit educational opportunities. Therefore, climate change can affect education programs by limiting its accessibility.

Due to heavy rains brought about by climate change, water quantity will increase in rivers and other catchment areas, which will affect the operations of existing practices such as hydroelectric power and flood control structures. Rivers will break their banks, and floods will rise to destroy crops and take away animals. This incident will affect food security of a country in coming days. In addition, due to total reliance of developing countries in hydroelectric power, a slight water supply shortage will paralyze most operations involving power. This is so, because power production will reduce an incident, which will result in power rationing. This will hinder operations in processing and other industries leading to slow development.

Policies necessary to prevent the effects of climatic change

The developing world should extend to other electric power sources like wind and nuclear energy, which are less affected by climatic changes besides hydroelectric power. This will keep operations in industries and other areas to run continuously even during harsh weather conditions. This will allow operations in industries even during drought and heavy rains seasons as power will be available from the alternative sources. This will keep the pace of growth in the developing countries.

The developing world should come up with food storage programs  which will curb the food shortages which may occur in the countries  during extended drought .They should also come up with irrigation schemes to keep constant production of food, even during the drought period. This will keep the economy growing.

The developing world should shift their dependency on agriculture in running the economy, to a more predictable field, which will not be affected by climate change. The economy is usually affected by extended climatic conditions. This is the major problem associated with most developing countries’ economies. Developing countries will, therefore, maintain a strong economy even when there are extended harsh climatic conditions, which will enable them a continuous growth in development.

The developing countries should come up with flexible education policies that will cater for the nomadic communities’ educational services accessibility. They should develop mobile schools, which will be available whenever the children migrate with their communities due to extended harsh conditions in search for food and water.

Organizations, that is suitable for addressing environmental issues in developing countries

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) whose objective is to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas addresses the threat of climate change globally. The parties to this organizational body have been meeting annually since 1995 to discuss the issues of greenhouse effect, which is because of climate change. They resolved to reduce using substances that produce many greenhouse gases. In addition, future global warming should be limited to increase the length of lives of living things in the world. This body has the responsibility to come up with policies to control environmental degradation in the World (Handelman).

Works Cited

Handel man, Howard. The Challenge of Third World Development. Boston, Mass. [u.a.: Pearson, 2013. Print.

Mehmet, Ozay. Westernizing the Third World: The Eurocentricity of Economic Development Theories. London: Routledge, 2002. Internet resource.