Essay Writing Help on Critical Thinking and Reasoning

Critical Thinking and Reasoning

Brief Introduction

Impediments to critical are a hindrance to earning hospitality management because they hinder impedes the earner from accomplishing some reasonable basis of belief. Impediments refer to the obstacles that learners in the hospitality and tourism management discipline have to acknowledge and avoid them. In fact, following the impediments blindly thwarts the learner’s effort of becoming efficient critical thinker (Barnet & Bedau, 2005). There are numerous impediments to critical thinking but this paper focuses on the three primary blocks to critical thinking relevant to a hospitality and tourism discipline. They include resistance to change, relying on authority and cultural conditioning. Although the impediments tend to overlap, they are significantly different from each other.

Resistance to Change

A major impediment to critical thinking is the tendency to stick to a certain way of doing things. It occurs when individuals avoid views that are contrary to what they believe in. In so doing the learner blocks out any new information that could threaten the existing set of beliefs. Resistance to change dismisses the emergence of information that contradicts the exiting beliefs because of the thought that the existing information I more secure (Cottrell, 2005). In the hospitality industry for instance, companies are finding it hard to comply with new laws and legislations that are geared towards transforming the sector. As a result, some companies have resorted to going to court to challenge the new laws because they feel threatened. There is evidence from responses given on highly contested debates such as how to curb crimes in the hospitality industry. Countermeasures that are typically recommended include stiffer penalties to the victims’ r tougher judgments. However, although these recommendations seem realistic no single study has established a correlation between the magnitudes of punishment availed to victims of crimes in the hospitality industry and the rate of crimes.

Reliance on Authority

Authority refers to an expert who is acts a common source of knowledge. The expert could be one person or a group of people or an institution (Cottrell, 2005). Learners would know very little if they did not rely on authority but they always take the authority for granted. Relying too much on authority is however dangerous and acts as an impediment to effective critical thinking. Authority may influence, impress or intimidate the learner and in some instances make the learners to abandon their beliefs and values. This does not however deny the fact that authority is a legitimate knowledge source. It simply implies that learners should understand that authority obtains force from the magnitude of the evidence upon which the views it tables are based on. Authority is important in influencing the thinking of learners but slavishly relying on the authority is a major impediment to critical thinking. If learners make up their minds and base their argument on what the authority said instead of basing the argument on evidence, then they stop being critical thinkers and become mere lackeys (Tittle, 2011). There should be solid grounds before relying on the actions of the authority such as what they did or said regarding a particular matter. Authority is meant to give guidance on what needs to be done but not to be followed blindly as it is the case for many learners.

Cultural Conditioning

Cultural conditioning is the term used to refer to the process in which the society passes over beliefs, attitudes and values to its members. Cultures condition members on how to operate through social norms, customary beliefs or material traits. Learners should acknowledge that culture is embedded in things that people are not much aware of for instance individualism is widely practiced in America. Individualism represents a value that the Americans have embraced remained firm in accomplishing it. Other countries are inheriting this value and have begun practicing it because of the assumption that it results into progress and prosperity. In fact, the list of cultural conditioning that learners in the hospitality industry inherit is endless. The connection between cultural conditioning and critical thinking is simple; if learners accept cultural assumptions blindly, then their critical thinking ability is impaired.  

Critical thinking is a function of objectivity and the ability to impartially examine the evidence before inheriting a certain trait, belief or a value (Tittle, 2011). Although it is difficult to be entirely objective, learners should remain impartial and allow their views to match with the evidence instead of the other way round. They must often keep their mind open and try as much as possible to put aside biases and preconceptions on a particular issue. To be effective critical thinkers, learner should examine cautiously any cultural assumptions before any attempts to incorporate them in their day to day life. Cultural conditioning has been a major block to critical thinking to many people because they blindly inherit certain cultural beliefs, views or values without cross-examining them. In a nutshell, critical thinking goes hand in hand with impartial assessment of cultural assumptions before inheriting and practicing (Barnet & Bedau, 2005). To remain critical thinkers, hospitality and tourism learners must keep these facts in their mind at all times.


Barnet, S., & Bedau, H. A. (2005). Current issues and enduring questions: A guide to critical

thinking and argument, with readings. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Cottrell, S. (2005). Critical thinking skills: Developing effective analysis and argument. New

York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tittle, P. (2011). Critical thinking: An appeal to reason. New York: Routledge.