English Essay on Learning For Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Learning For Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Introduction

            Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an expression employed to define different symptoms and conducts that affect the manner in which people comprehend and respond to the world surrounding them. Autism Spectrum Disorder denotes an umbrella expression that encompasses Asperger syndrome and autism in addition to pervasive developmental disorders. Every one of the autism spectrum disorders has an onset prior to three years of age. The cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder is still unknown, but in a number of instances they could be passed down through genetic mechanisms. Studies affirm that approximately 25% of children with learning disabilities have an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder have learning disabilities that range from the ones necessitating minimum assistance to have an active life to the ones that necessitate lifetime, professional assistance.

Eren, Bilgehan, Jale Deniz, and Ayten Düzkantar. “The Effectiveness of Embedded Teaching through the Most-to-Least Prompting Procedure in Concept Teaching to Children with Autism within Orff-based Music Activities.” Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 13.3 (2013): 1877-1885.

This study shows the success of well-established teaching via prompting practice in conception instruction to students with autism in Orff-anchored Music Activities. This perception was founded successful in the induction of dissimilar situations, diverse individuals, and different resources. Moreover, social authority was established in the study to ascertain the significance of the ideas of research and training techniques to attain the rationales and outcomes.

 Eren, Deniz, and Düzkantar succeeded in shedding light to some successful means of teaching children with autism. The targeted audience was teachers, stakeholders, and parents of students with autism. This source is valid and important since it contains reliable information to benefits teachers and children with autism.

Hampshire, Patricia, and Jack Hourcade. “Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism Using Visually Structured Tasks.” TEACHING Exceptional Children 46.3 (2014): 26-31.

This study offers recommendation to early upbringing special education educators for training play techniques to children with ASD, centering on the application of visually prepared undertakings. Issued tackled encompass an indication of the developmental phases of play stretching from lonesome, to collimate, to accommodating forms; the importance of visual use for children with ASD, and an outline for methodically planning visually constituted undertakings.

An observed fault concerning this article is that following its review, other specialists created some alterations to the finds. Nonetheless, this article is important as Hampshire and Hourcade are able to show the significance of visually structured activities in teaching children with autism.

Huskens, Bibi, Hilde Reijers, and Robert Didden. “Staff training effective in increasing learning opportunities for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders.” Developmental neurorehabilitation 15.6 (2012): 435-447.

Huskens, Reijers, and Didden assessed the success of lessons and video response on staff training proficiencies in the course of play and introduction of children with ASD. Trainers generated considerably more learning chances in the course of post-instruction and a noteworthy augment happened during video response. In the course of follow-up, 3 children demonstrated impulsive initiatives. The results offer aid for training personnel to form learning chances that could lead to associated advancements.

Huskens, Reijers, and Didden embarked on intensive research while writing this article and consulted previous studies thus making this article credible and the research valid. The importance of this source is that it gives trainers vital knowledge concerning the teaching of children with ASD.

Jones, James, et al. “Rule learning in autism: the role of reward type and social context.” Developmental neuropsychology 38.1 (2013): 58-77.

According to this article, the knowledge of rules is fundamental to social and cognitive improvement. In a couple of experiments, Jones et al. employed belated non-corresponding to sample undertakings to typify the longitudinal advancement and character of rule-knowledge destructions in children with ASD. The outcomes demonstrated that children with autism frequently faced more challenges in the learning of theoretical rules from a distinct physical reinforcement.

The knowledge of the rules was enhanced by the use of a more concrete support, implying an underlying problem in structuring conceptual associations. This source is credible as it discusses the significance of testing executive functions in both shared and non-shared perspectives.

Kirk, Samuel, et al. Educating exceptional children. 13th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

 This book is a classic yet modern content for initiation to special learning and associated courses. Kirk et al. concentrate on major subjects within the field of neurology, genetic science, and inclusion to mention a few. This is a credible source as it presents major, research-oriented teaching progressions and policies for children with different learning problems, and also analyzes ecological aspects that sway the exceptional child inside and outside the classroom setting.

The authors of this book are notables in the sector of special education and enlighten learners to every one of the 13 classes of problems and to the requirements of children that are gifted.

Oakley, Grace, et al. “Becoming multimodal authors: Pre-service teachers’ interventions to support young children with autism.” Australasian Journal of Early Childhood 38.3 (2013): 86-94.

This article discusses a couple of case studies concerning classroom-based teaching interventions that were triumphant in helping children with autism undertake and study literacy via the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Every intervention was seen to be successful in boosting the partaking children’s literacy accomplishment and commitment.

The source by Oakley et al. is important in illustrating the triumphant bonding of the scientific, educational, and content understanding of educators, in addition to their awareness of children pertained, to organize evidence-based interventions by means of Information and Communication Technology for effective learning of children with autism. Every author is well-informed in their area and made an immense contribution.

Sansosti, Frank, and Jenine Sansosti. “Effective school‐based service delivery for students with autism spectrum disorders: Where we are and where we need to go.” Psychology in the Schools 50.3 (2013): 229-244.

This article acquired information from teachers of school psychology to determine the present condition of performance and discover areas of modification necessitated for future guidance and progression. Largely, outcomes of the study were heartening and showed that both teachers and practitioners undertake in a diversity of evidence-oriented consideration and intervention progressions.

Both the authors have psychology settings and carried out the study under American Psychological Association guidelines. The intended audiences for this article are school psychologists that act in the assessment of educational, behavioral, and social performance of students with ASD and ensure effective strategies.

 

Siegel, Bryna. Helping children with autism learn: Treatment approaches for parents and professionals. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

According to this book, the problem of addressing autism is that it consists of numerous signs and causes. Autism deprives children of social connections, language, and closeness, though the extent differs considerably in every case. The author discusses the means of identification of the children’s unique disabilities and evaluates the policies for tackling them.

The intended audience for this source is parents as well as professional as it offers them the best means of assisting the learning of children with autism. Siegel is a lecturer at the University of California and a specialist in diagnosis and management of ASD.

Su, Hui Fang Haung, Leanne Lai, and Herminia Rivera. “Effective mathematics strategies for pre-school children with autism.” Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom 17.2 (2012): 25.

The signs of autism start prior to a child becoming 3 years old and he/she could have problems with developing their reactions, with the suppression of repetitive conducts and concerns, and are more probable of having connected learning challenges. Australia is comparable to other nations across the globe with respect to the challenges it encounters in special education, particularly with ASD, though every country also has a unique set of difficulties.

In their article, Su, Lai, and Rivera consider regulating the coaching of mathematics to support children with autism. The importance of this source is that it could assist educators in associating unfamiliar thoughts to what they are already knowledgeable about with the intention of successful learning of children with autism.

Wilson, Kaitlyn. “Teaching social-communication skills to preschoolers with autism: efficacy of video versus in vivo modeling in the classroom.” Journal of autism and developmental disorders 43.8 (2013): 1819-1831.

According to this article, video modeling is a time- and cost-effective intervention that has been confirmed successful for children with ASD.  Wilson presents awareness into the heterogeneous action reaction of children with ASD. Further information revealing visual concentration and social strength were captured to further define participant’s learning preferences and practices, in addition to teacher’s insights of the suitability of every intervention’s practices in the classroom environment.

Nevertheless, this article fails to analyze the comparative effectiveness of this intervention in the classroom situation. Wilson is a lecturer at the Towson University in the department of Audiology. 

Works Cited

Eren, Bilgehan, Jale Deniz, and Ayten Düzkantar. “The Effectiveness of Embedded Teaching through the Most-to-Least Prompting Procedure in Concept Teaching to Children with Autism within Orff-based Music Activities.” Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 13.3 (2013): 1877-1885.

Hampshire, Patricia, and Jack Hourcade. “Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism Using Visually Structured Tasks.” TEACHING Exceptional Children 46.3 (2014): 26-31.

Huskens, Bibi, Hilde Reijers, and Robert Didden. “Staff training effective in increasing learning opportunities for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders.” Developmental neurorehabilitation 15.6 (2012): 435-447.

Jones, James, et al. “Rule learning in autism: the role of reward type and social context.” Developmental neuropsychology 38.1 (2013): 58-77.

Kirk, Samuel, et al. Educating exceptional children. 13th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Oakley, Grace, et al. “Becoming multimodal authors: Pre-service teachers’ interventions to support young children with autism.” Australasian Journal of Early Childhood 38.3 (2013): 86-94.

Sansosti, Frank, and Jenine Sansosti. “Effective school‐based service delivery for students with autism spectrum disorders: Where we are and where we need to go.” Psychology in the Schools 50.3 (2013): 229-244.

Siegel, Bryna. Helping children with autism learn: Treatment approaches for parents and professionals. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Su, Hui Fang Haung, Leanne Lai, and Herminia Rivera. “Effective mathematics strategies for pre-school children with autism.” Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom 17.2 (2012): 25.

Wilson, Kaitlyn. “Teaching social-communication skills to preschoolers with autism: efficacy of video versus in vivo modeling in the classroom.” Journal of autism and developmental disorders 43.8 (2013): 1819-1831.