Criminal Justice Paper on Crime and Public Policy: Maryland

Crime and Public Policy: Maryland

Abstract

This paper seeks to provide criminal offenses in Maryland City. The paper will explore the different crimes that have been committed in Maryland in the year 2012 as well as the previous years. The analysis will focus on the methods of measuring the crime rates as well as the limitations of using official records in criminal investigations. Statistical data analysis such as piece charts and graphs will be extensively used to indicate the crime levels of Maryland in relation to those of other cities such as Baltimore. Thus, the paper will be useful in comparing the crime rates in Maryland to the national crime rates as well as the measures applied to deal with the crimes in the State.

Crime and Public Policy: Maryland

Introduction

The high crime rate in Maryland has been a major concern to the state as well as the national government. Maryland State continues to record various forms of crime associated with drug use, violence, and loss of property. These crime rates differ on various levels. For example, national and State levels continue to record higher crime rates than local regions. National, State, and local crime incidents include robbery with violence, assaults, thefts, homicides, and loss of property. According to the overall national statistics, Maryland records a high crime rate compared to other states in the United States. However, the crime rate in the state is relatively lower in relation to other states such as Baltimore due to the efforts made by the state government in addressing the issue. As a result, crime rate in Maryland in the last decade have been on the decline (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

National Crime Statistics for 2012

In 2012, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reported a decline in the national crime rate by12.6%. The various categories of offences during the year 2012 were as follows:

Figure 1: National Crime Offenses in 2012.

This figure is a pie chart that breaks down (by percent distribution) the types of larceny-thefts that occurred in 2010.  In the Nation, 26.4 percent of larceny-theft offenses were from motor vehicles (except accessories), 17.2 percent were shoplifting, 11.3 percent were from buildings, 8.9 percent were motor vehicle accessories, 3.3 percent were bicycles, 0.5 percent were purse-snatching, 0.4 percent were pocket-picking, and 0.3 percent were from coin-operated machines.  All other larceny-thefts accounted for the remaining 31.8 percent.

National Violent Crimes

National Violent Crimes

In 2012, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) asserted that the violent crimes in the country were on the rise. Data on national violent crimes was compiled by the FBI and the National Crime Survey from Bureau of Justice Statistics (Warren, 2013). The national data statistics revealed 386.9 violent crimes were committed for every one hundred persons. These statistics were mainly associated with robberies. In regard to Maryland, a total of 593 violent crimes were committed in 2012 in relation to robberies.

The graph below indicates a reduction in total crime rates across Baltimore in the State of Maryland between 2006 and 2012.

 Figure 2:

Figure 3: A Pie Chart on National versus State Violent Crimes in 2012

The national violent crimes recorded during the year 2012 were 39% compared to those of Maryland State of 61%. Maryland was largely affected by the high number of violent crimes committed. On a local level, 176 violent crimes were recorded in Maryland State.

National Property Crimes

In 2012, the national property crimes were relatively low compared to the previous years.

Fig 4: Pie Chart Showing the Percentage of National Property Crimes In Relation To Maryland and Baltimore City

The pie chart indicates that the national local property crimes were relatively low compared to the property crime rate of Maryland (Keith, 2014). Thus, Maryland is a major contributor towards the high and rising property offenses recorded in the country.

The pie chart reveals that, 12% of drug offenses recorded in Maryland were reported in Baltimore.

0.12*17.5=1.925

 It is therefore evident that, 1.93 property offense cases were recorded for every one hundred persons residing in Baltimore.

Figure 5: Total Crime Rate in Maryland in 2012

   Property theft took the largest share of the total number of crimes committed in Maryland in 2012. Other crimes that were highly experienced include larceny theft while no cases of murder were reported.

Drug offences committed in Maryland during 2012 were as follows:

The total number of persons arrested in relation to drug offences in 2011 was 48092.

48092/17.5=2748.1

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 2748 drug offences were recorded in Maryland in 2011.

In 2012, the number increased to 49535.

49535/17.5=2830.5

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand 2830 drug offences were recorded in Maryland in 2012.

 Figure 6: A Pie Chart Showing Sales and Manufacturing of Drugs in Baltimore

Figure 7:  National Versus State Drug Offenses.

The total crime rate in Maryland was high especially property theft crimes which was above the national statistics of 21%. However, Maryland recorded a low crime in the other categories such as robbery, larceny theft and assault in relation to the national statistics.

 Violent Crimes in Maryland

Violent crimes reported in Maryland included murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, breaking and entering as well as loss of motor vehicles.

Figure 8: Percentage of Violent crimes in Maryland in comparison to Baltimore City

Murder

In 2011, 383 cases of murder were reported. This included murders committed by juvenile and adult offenders using handguns, knives, and drugs were used. 383/17.5=21.9

 It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 22 murders were committed in Maryland in 2011.  The records in 2012 decreased to 372 murder cases. 372/17.5=21.2

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons twenty one murders were committed in Maryland in 2012 (Denise & Kenneth, 2012). 

 Figure 8:

Rape

In 2011, 1200 rape cases were reported.

1200/17.5=68.6

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 69 actual forcible and attempted rapes were committed in Maryland in 2011.

The numbers increased to 1236 in 2012. They included attempted and actual forcible criminal offences undertaken through violence.

1236/17.5=70.6

 It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 71 actual forcible and attempted rapes were committed in Maryland (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

Figure 9(a):

9(b)

Robbery

Robbery involves taking valuables from the owner, caretaker, custodian or controller using force, threats, and violence in order to inflict fear and/or pain. In 2011, 10378 robbery cases were reported.

10378/17.5=593

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 593 robberies were committed in Maryland in 2011.

The cases reduced to 10171 robbery offenses recorded in 2012. The perpetrators used weapons such as knives, firearms, cutting objects, and strong-arm to commit the robberies.

10171/17.5= 581.2

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand 581 robberies were committed in Maryland (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

 Fig. 10.

Aggravated Assault

This criminal offense involves unlawful attacks with intentions to inflict fear and pain through aggravated and severe body injuries. The numbers of aggravated assaults recorded in 2011 were 16804.

16804/17.5=960.2

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand people 960 aggravated assaults were committed in Maryland. These numbers however decreased to 16300 cases in 2012.

16300/17.5=931.4

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand people 931 cases of aggravated assaults were committed in Maryland (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

Fig. 11(a)

11 (b)

Breaking and Entering

This criminal offense mainly includes unlawful and forced entries. The entries involve breaking a barrier using force to gain entry into a residential and non-residential place to commit other forms of crime including robbery, murder, rape, and property theft among others. In 2011, 35608 cases of breaking and entering were recorded.

35608/17.5=2034.7

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 2035 breaking and entering offences were recorded in Maryland.

In 2012, they reduced to 33472 cases including forced, non-forced, and attempted cases.

33472/17.5=1912.7

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 1913 breaking and entering offences were recorded in Maryland (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

Fig 12(a)

        12(b)

Larceny Thefts

Larceny thefts accounts for loss of various valuables. These thefts can be carried out by pocket pickers, drug peddlers, violent and non-violent criminals. Larceny theft includes loss of bicycles, motor vehicles, machines, auto parts, purses, money, computers, and other portable valuables. The number of larceny thefts recorded in 2011 was 114921.

114921/17.5=6566.9

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 6567thefts were recorded in Maryland

This number decreased to a total of 113772 larceny thefts recorded in 2012.

113772/17.5=6501.3

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons 6501thefts were recorded in Maryland (Denise & Kenneth, 2012).

Fig. 13(a)

 13(b)

  (Denise & Kenneth, 2012)

Figure 14: Property Crimes in Maryland

The pie chart below indicates property crimes in Maryland reduced in 2012. 

In 2011, 15926.3 cases of motor vehicle thefts were reported. This represented nine percent of property crimes recorded in that year amounting to 176958.9 cases.

176958/17.5=10111.9

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons nine thousand two hundred and one property thefts were recorded in Maryland in 2012

In 2012, 14493 cases of motor vehicle thefts were reported. This accounted for nine percent of property crime. Thus, a total of 161033 property crimes were recorded. 

161033/17.5=9201.9

Figure 15: The pie chart below indicates the various forms of crime rates recorded in Maryland in 2012.

It is therefore evident that, for every one hundred thousand persons nine thousand two hundred and one property thefts were recorded in Maryland in 2012.

Conclusion

In summary, the paper has discussed the crime rates in Maryland State. These include the property crime, robbery, assault and murder. The paper has used pie charts to relate the state’s crime rates to the national crime levels and Baltimore city. In relation to the statistics, property crimes are the highest in Maryland and are above the national statistics. However, Maryland has relatively low crime rates from the other categories compared to Baltimore City and the national statistics. These categories include murder, breaking and stealing. In the year 2012, crime violent crime rates in Maryland were reduced following the state’s efforts to curb the crime rates through state policing and controls. Thus, Maryland should enhance measures to reduce the high property crimes which are above the national statistics. These includes establishing programs aimed at rehabilitating criminals. The program should target both children and adults especially participating in gang activities. Providing them with education, housing, monthly allowances, and medical care can motivate them to abandon the streets and lead safe and comfortable lives.

References

Denise, V. S., & Kenneth, G. D. (2012). Crime in Maryland: Central records uniform crime reporting program, 38th Annual Crime Report.

Keith, H. (2014). Property Crimes and Violence in United States: An Analysis of the Influence of Population Density, International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 1(2), 24-34.

Warren, G. D. (2013). Criminal gangs in Maryland, department of legislative services. Oxford: Oxford University Press.