Communication Development in Early Childhood
Communication involves exchange of views and feelings none verbally and verbally while connecting with other people. It is the ideal means via which feelings are expressed, thoughts are exchanged and transferred and is also a way of ensuring proper comprehension of concepts that are improved. Communication is also the capability to offer, receive and make sense of data through speech and language.
Language is the communication strategy involving letters, sounds and sign languages. On the other hand, speech is focused on the ability to express language through gestures and sounds.
How do Humans Communicate? Do other Animal Species Communicate?
There are different ways in which the human species communication while transferring texts and meaningful details transferred between people through discussions, conversations, talk, dialogue or general communication around. Individuals can use gestures, facial exchanges, speech and written word. Human communication in many cases is focused on oral sounds usage with complex symbolic strategies to combine sounds and to assign meaning haphazardly.
Even so, in animal species, communication is more focused on the use of body language. They communicate via gestures, visual texts, smells and sounds involving whistles, barks, hoots, slaps on the ground and howls among others to notify other people of their state psychologically, current concerns and to indicate what they will do next.
Dogs and cats for instance tend to use urine to mark their territories. In such an incident, scent is sent out and is often recognized as individual signature, claiming their territory and warning intruders. Human beings rank as top amongst other animal species in communication. Humans can utilize gestures, signals and signs in some cases in which, animals cannot exercise.
How Parents and Others Talk to the Little Ones and Other Modalities through Which Little Ones Learn about Language
The way in which guardians communicate with their kids plays a crucial role in their ability to learn and listen. This is based on the fact that the first institution through which a kid learns about communication is from the parent, more specifically the mother. Therefore, mums have a great impact on kids learning because they spend most of their time with the kids.
Communication is also a constantly model to kids on how they behave and act. As a result, the way in which kids speak, depicts how parents want them to answer back. In many cases, parents want them to speak back. Parents in many cases learn to avoid using negative language such as ‘‘don’t’’ and ‘‘no’’ and use the name of the child to get attention.
Connecting with the kid through the eye is also equally essential. Affirmative guidelines are given through words but the seriousness attached to such are expressed via the keenness communicated by facial expression state. This boosts listening between the parents and the children. Besides talking to the little ones, one also has a way of enhancing his or her communication skills, modalities including playing word games, singing, reading books, watching television and listening to radio helps to enhance their vocabulary and offer more opportunities to develop their listening skills.
By 24 months of age, little ones can put two words together and develop some grammar skills.
Language Development in Infant Stage
Development of language is one of the most interesting parts in a child’s growth. The understanding of a child and use of words build rapidly at the age of about 5months. They start to identify their names and pay more attention when you mention the name in a conversation, (Newman and Newman, 2012). At the age of 8months, they also start to read social clues and understand when adults get angry, when voices get louder, when breathing is more rapid and when movements are jerkier.
At the same age, kids also start to pay more attention to conversation and can converse via vocalization making ‘’cooing’’ sounds. They can also clearly understand a conversation even before their guardians believe they can. Therefore, no matter what you say, there is a high possibility that your kid is decoding the message. Otto (2002), children explore language at the age of two years.
At the age of two, children start to learn about nine words a day and start to understand language patterns as well as how the order of words affects meaning. They can also figure out what a person is talking about at this age. However, others still appear to have difficulties in language patterns. They do not speak often until when they are about 18months old. My nephew started uttering words such as ‘’dada’’ ‘‘mama’’ and ‘‘up’’ at about 17 months.
He had just mastered a few verbs, nouns and adjectives. 7 months later, he could put the words together in few syllabus sentences. My nephew could express his feelings in verbal statements such as ‘‘Want milk mummy’’. At times, he could put statements together that only those who spent most of the time with him could understand and not outsiders.
A few months later, he started speaking words with complex statements such as “When we get home, can I watch TV?” This was undoubtedly rapid though late unlike other kids who master acquisition of speech at the age of 12 months. Generally, before an infant says his or her first words, he or she may appear to master communication skills that create a basis of language.
A later talker in many cases raises alarm because a sizeable minority, roughly ten percent often lag behind in the issue (Otto, 2002).
Major Language Development Milestone associated with Toddlerhood
Development of language milestones means attainment of different skills and abilities in early childhood. Different language and speech milestones can be achieved on a monthly basis. A child through this development learns to communicate his or he deeper thoughts, emotions and ideas.
The age and pace at which a toddler achieves a certain milestone can vary from one child to the other. Even so, girls appear to develop language faster than boys. Language development stages are additionally universal amongst all individuals (Otto, 2002). The stages include
Language development in infants is rapid. They can respond to changes based on the tone of a voice or make louder sounds. This means that children at this age have started to take note of emotions that accompany spoken words and that they can understand and make sense of the words. Additionally, they have ability to vocalize excitements as well as pleasure, shape their mouths to change and even spatter loudly (Newman and Newman, 2012). In short, in many cases, they use babbles and gestures to communicate their desires.
At the age of 12 months, a toddler is in a position to use single words and is accompanied by a tone or gestures. He or she is in a position to utilize non-verbal gestures even though they have not mastered the functions of language. Still, at this age, a child can make sense out of compound judgments. The range of toddlers sounds produced is also narrowed.
They start to babble, talking on characteristics of language around them. Babbling in many cases include reduplicated words such as ‘‘dadada’’, ‘’nana’’, ‘‘mama’’ or ‘‘papa’’ (Newman and Newman, 2012). These are somehow questionable articulations in the first place. Even so, kids can persist until they get something before they use sounds to draw the attention of other people or object.
A significant percentage of the little ones have mastered about 200 word vocabularies. They can imitate others or chatter and use echolalia and comprehending simple words such as ‘hot’’, ‘stop’’ and ‘on’’ among others. Even so, up to 20 percent of their communication can be understood by non-family members, (Newman and Newman, 2012). At this age, they often get excited once they notice that their efforts to communicate are being appreciated.
At this age, children often realize the effect of complex statements by stringing together simple words. They also start to utilize more nouns and some simple words to describe objects for instance ‘’small’’ or ‘’big’’.
At this age, the language development of a kid becomes rapid. They come to comprehend words and that they are used for almost everything. Many words here are universal including names of toys, vehicles, animals, foods, clothing as well as family members. The largest percentage appears to learn more general stuff; however, they can in some cases generalize some words for instance calling all pets ‘‘cats’’. Additionally, they can follow a two-step instruction and utter intelligible words. According to Otto (2002), at this age, children are often using twenty to fifty understandable words.
Many parents can comprehend up to eighty or ninety percent of their kids speech because their speech skills continue to grow (Otto, 2002). In some cases, they may leave off the words end and mispronounce some. They also seem to engage in a give and take form of communication with a persona and can formulate simple questions.
How do Toddlers Communicate?
Babies may cry in different ways for various things or gurgle or coo with pleasure. Soon they start to realize that their parents respond when they make specific sounds. They also trust this as a way of communication when a guardian responds because his or her needs are addressed. They also tend to carry this through their early childhood and from now onwards, begin to use words and actions that express what they want or see. In some cases, they make short sentences such as “Mummy, I want”, as a way of ascertaining themselves. ‘‘Mine’’ and ‘‘No’’ to claim their space and take control of theirs, (Otto, 2002). Toddlers can also use gestures and tone of voices as well to communicate. Newman and Newman (2012) claim that whatever kids physically do may be as equally significant as what they actually say.
A toddler communicates and expresses him or herself and answers whenever a question is asked though in some cases, he or she doesn’t do what you ask him to do necessarily, thus generating the question of whether toddlers understand or not. The child at this age also undergoes huge development and their infant babbles are now facing the real world, from single statements to stringing multiple words together (Newman and Newman, 2012).
Even so, they may get frustrated in many cases because they understand more than what they can utter. Slowing down is one of the many ways that a guardian can help a toddler understand what he or she is being told. Meal times, bath times are often some of the most ideal times to sow down your speech and to your kid. Additionally, adults should consider more time to help the kids to respond to them. Newman and Newman (2012) argue, “When you ask him a question, wait. When you want him to do something, wait” (p. 202).
In many cases, little ones mimic sounds whenever parents talk or when watching cartoons on TV. Imitation is also essential to development of capabilities from language to social skills. This can also help the kid in combining words into short phrases and sentences in the long run that they can easily understand.
While in the long run many kids learn spoken words as vital means of communication, they continue to use gestures, expression and body movements to converse. To enhance their communication skills and language, they need full support throughout their toddlerhood. Being a good communication is essential in development of a child, (Talay-Ongan and AP, 2005).
Adults should therefore inspire their little ones to communicate by listening to her attentively, responding to her and demonstrating good communication. Adults also have to create an environment that will motivate a kid to interact with others, adults, objects and with places in it. This can enhance their creativity, imagination and thinking thus, enhancing communication.
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012). Development through life: A
Psychosocial approach, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Otto, B. (2002). Language development in early childhood. Upper Saddle River, N.J:
Talay-Ongan, A., & Ap, E. A. (2005). Child development and teaching young children.
Southbank, Vic: Thomson Social Science.