Lignin Based Dispersant
Lignin is a compound organic polymer, which forms a critical structural material to sustain tissues in vascular plants. Lignin application is vital because it assists in the processing of biofuel from plants, which are the raw materials through biodegradation. Lignin is mainly exploited in industries for dust control, mixing concrete, drilling of oil, and for fuel (Gupta, et al. 332). According to Gupta, et al., lignin application is fundamental in the utilization of upgraded technical lignin on thermoplastic, thermoset, as well as composite applications of polymers (332). Lignin is widely recognized as a core byproduct for many industries in generating polysaccharide elements of plants, which are essential for industrial applications (Thakur, et al. 1072). Pure lignin is normally produced from organic solvent pulping or through bioethanol process, thus, contributing in regulating atmospheric carbon within the plant living tissues. Lignin reduction is critical in industrial production of paper and pulp.
Other important applications of lignin include: used as a binder in mortar and construction structures, metal sequestrations, as well as in biodegradable plastic additives (Stewart 205). Lignin is raw material in the manufacture of ethanol, industrial sugars, and humic acid. The slow biodegradation nature of lignin is essential in the accumulation of humus in the soil (Chiellini and Solaro 42). In pulping, lignin is applicable as an additive for agricultural chemicals, as well as for oil field applications. Lignin acts an oxidant and antibacterial; hence, useful in livestock production as a feed additive (Calvo-Flores, et al. 257). Lignin is also utilized during the manufacturing of flexible polyurethane foam, which is a raw material for producing adhesives and elastomers (Bernardini, et al. 147). The research on oxypropylation of biomass has been expanded to demonstrate the growing functionality of lignin.
Dispersants are chemical components utilized to get rid of oil that spread on the water surface. Lenz, Wells, and Kingston have stated that the core objective of dispersants is to minimize the effects of the surface slick on shoreline habitats (195). Today, lignin dispersants have become popular in the dye market due to their low cost, as well as superior performance properties (Tillman and Jahn 42). The future of dispersants is promising because the lignin component makes dispersants to become environmental friendly and biodegradable in nature. Due to its poly-aromatic nature, as well as its abundance in the environment, lignin is likely to become the future green source for sweet-smelling chemicals, and particularly the phenols (Cotana, et al. 53). In addition, lignin dispersants will enhance survival to numerous organisms in both land and seas by accelerating the degradation of oil.
Lignin also contributes immensely on the environment sustainability. Its impact to the environment is that it replaces fossil-based raw materials in a variety of products. The production of biofuels, as well as bio-energy from lignocellulosic remains has contributed in the mitigation of the greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to conserving the environment through creating a substitute to fossil fuels (Barakat, et al. 90). The biodegradation of lignin occurs naturally in the environment, leading to the accumulation of humus in the soils (Chiellini and Solaro 42). Lignin is usually applied as dust suppression element during the construction of roads. Lignin assists in the advancement of value-added polymers from lignin, which are crucial in enhancing sustainable economy, as well as reducing carbon footprint (Cotana, et al. 53).
Barakat, Abdellatif, et al. “Effect of lignin-derived and furan compounds found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on biomethane production.” Bioresource technology 104 (2012): 90-99.
Bernardini, Jacopo, Patrizia Cinelli, Irene Anguillesi, Maria-Beatrice Coltelli, Andrea Lazzeri. “Flexible polyurethane foams green production employing lignin or oxypropylated lignin.” European Polymer Journal 64 (2015): 147-156.
Calvo-Flores, Francisco G, Jiménez J. A. Dobado, Joaquín I. Garcia, and Francisco J. Martín-Martínez. Lignin and Lignans As Renewable Raw Materials: Chemistry, Technology and Applications. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2015. Print.
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Cotana, Franco, et al. “Lignin as co-product of second generation bioethanol production from ligno-cellulosic biomass.” Energy Procedia 45 (2014): 52-60.
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Lenz, Bob, Justin Wells, and Sally Kingston. Transforming Schools Using Project-Based Deeper Learning, Performance Assessment, and Common Core Standards. , 2015. Print.
Stewart, Derek. “Lignin as a base material for materials applications: Chemistry, application and economics.” Industrial crops and products 27.2 (2008): 202-207.
Thakur, Vijay Kumar, Manju Kumari Thakur, Prasanth Raghavan, and Michael R. Kessler. “Progress in green polymer composites from lignin for multifunctional applications: a review.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2.5 (2014): 1072-1092.
Tillman, David A, and Edwin C. Jahn. Progress in Biomass Conversion: Volume 4. New York, NY: Academic Press, 2013. Internet resource.