Business Studies Dissertation Methodology Paper on Research Design

Research Design

Welfare dependency affects the sustainability of states and the economic development of the entire United States nation. Welfare dependencies reduce the number of people in stable employment thus interfering with the productivity of the countries in various scales. Additionally, the existence of welfare dependent people is an indication of a failing society because every community must have the capacity of supporting its population without external help. Therefore, solving the issues of welfare dependency in the United States requires one to understand the causal effects of such attachments thoroughly (Borjas & Sueyoshi, 2013).

Many types of research have been conducted in the topic of the causal effects of welfare dependency. The possible causes of welfare dependency are known to most government agencies, but less has been done to convert these causal effects to solutions. According to the Borjas and Sueyoshi (2013), the government is more focused on creating exit welfare programs, but most of the strategies used to this course do not guarantee successful lives for those who exit the programs. As such, most exit programs only enhance the vicious cycle of dependency. The children of the people who leave the welfare program without stable solutions to their financial situations end up in the welfare programs in the future. The cist of living, the cost of education, and the stigma associated with poverty hinders such children from progressing in life. A permanent solution is, therefore, necessary to determine how the established welfare dependence causal effects can propagate successful exit programs for people dependent on welfare programs (Davis & Sanchez, 2014). 

Welfare dependent people by definition are the individuals whose life choices, as indicated by the economic theorists, have led them to depend on government support. On the other hand, the sociologist theories define welfare dependent people as those who have been driven to depend on the government by the society (Kittay, 2013). The current paper, therefore, combines the two definitions of welfare dependent persons to include both the societal effects and the individual and contextual factors that influence welfare dependency in the United States. TANF is a welfare program coined to temporary assist the needy families in varied states. TANF has proved quite successful in comparison with other welfare exit programs hence the focus of this paper. An ideal and successful welfare exit program must include an after exit plan that assist people to live successfully and avoid further dependencies (Borjas & Sueyoshi, 2013).

Alcock and Powell, (2014) underline the welfare dependency is an enormous and multifaceted arrangement of clarifications that emphasis on the person as in charge of their inability economic circumstance. Socially and politically preservationist theoreticians accuse persons in neediness for making their particular issues and contend that with harder work and better decisions, the poor could have stayed away from and, in fact, can solve their predicaments. Different individual theories of poverty credit destitution to the absence of hereditary qualities, for example, intelligence that are not all that effortlessly switched (Davis & Sanchez, 2014). The conviction that neediness originates from individual inadequacies is old. The religious principle that likened riches with the support of God was fundamental to the Protestant renewal and visually impaired, handicapped, or deformed individuals were accepted to be rebuffed by God for either their or their parents’ transgressions. With the rise of the idea of acquired knowledge in the nineteenth century, the selective breeding development went so far as to defend neediness and even disinfection for the individuals who seemed to have constrained capacities (Alcock & Powell, 2014).

The research underlining the fundamental economic theories will be isolated into segments depicting the broad economic frameworks to which each of the theories relevant. It will start with the consideration of the welfare dependency by the classical and neoclassical schools, usually referred to as “customary” methodologies, which led the formal investigation of the welfare dependency in the nineteenth century (Davis & Sanchez, 2014). The paper will then continue to different theories that developed mostly as a response to the assumptions, speculations, and conclusions determined by the classical economists. Inside of this gathering of theories, the paper will cover those that acknowledge and reject the establishment premises of classical economics, yet present various oddities, for example, the theories of the economic liberals like the Keynes (Alcock & Powell, 2014). Moreover, it will likewise incorporate those that inspect the issue from an entirely disparate impression of the socioeconomic frameworks, for example, the radical economic theorists like the Marxists (Davis & Sanchez, 2014).

Glennerster (2013), purports that welfare exit or more specifically TANF welfare exit is the dependent variable in the current study. Exiting welfare programs are not easy especially for single mothers who lack the necessary skills to survive in the normal world. The reasons as to why people join the welfare programs affect their ability to leave the welfare assistance and become self-independent in the future. For instance, single mothers who join the welfare program after loosing their jobs or a divorce are likely to exit the program in less that twelve months and achieve a successful life independently (Segalman & Marsland, 2012). On the other hand, those who join the program because of early pregnancies and lack of employment are likely to make the welfare programs a lifestyle rather than a safety net (Glennerster, 2013).

The current research will use both primary and secondary data to measure the dependent variable. The administrative data from state agencies, which is available in public documents, will be used to analyze the success of exit welfare programs. The administrative data is more precise and easy to assign to various localities to determine the possible effects of the society on the exit programs. Most people go back to welfare dependencies because of societal discrimination (Kittay, 2013). Therefore, analyzing the administrative data from different state agencies will help to determine the number of people living successful lives after the exit programs and the factors that led to the same.

The current research hypothesizes that society cohesion has a considerable impact on the success of the exit programs. The administrative data will provide the necessary information on how the TANF program has contributed towards society cohesion for successful exit programs. Further, the employment act and the amount of help received by each family will determine the success or failure of TANF in propagating the exit welfare plans (Anderson & Gryzlak, 2012).

The independent variables in the study are grouped into four main categories including human capital, labor markets, neighborhood, and race. All these issues affect the exit welfare programs significantly and, therefore, can be used to transform the lives of the people who leave the welfare assistance. The administrative data will be useful to measure each of the variables but the researcher will also conduct online interviews with people who have been affected by welfare programs in one way or another. The interviews and the administrative data are meant to establish the issues that most welfare dependent people consider valuable in achieving a successful exit plan from welfare dependencies (Segalman & Marsland, 2012). Most welfare programs assume that unskilled labor or any form of employment is enough to warrant independence for the people depending on the welfare programs. However, most of the people still dependent on welfare programs are engaged in some form of jobs but the income cannot support their families. The research will help the TANF and any other welfare program interested in creating successful welfare exist to understand the needs of these people better and come up with better solutions.

The research will test the short-term effects of job training on employment opportunities for people who exit the welfare programs. The purpose of the test will be to determine if such training can be enhanced to promote better employment opportunities for the welfare dependent people. Successful exit plans depend on the employability of the persons. Therefore, TANF must come up with ideal training mechanisms and training that last long enough to ensure a successful transition from welfare to the outer word for its beneficiaries. On the other hand, the research will focus on the causes of school drops outs to determine the possible solution to educational factors that affect the exit programs. The study will compare data from different states with different education programs and accessibility to determine which mechanisms can be used to promote excellent education qualifications and prevent welfare dependencies. Although most of the people in welfare dependencies are adults with fewer needs of primary educations, their children can benefit from accessible and affordable education programs. Affordable education reduces the burden of family care for single mothers, which can enhance their exit from the program (Marsland, 2014).

To test the neighborhood and race hypothesis, the research will analyze the administrative data and online surveys to determine the best neighborhood programs that can help people who exit the welfare programs to succeed in life. The research will focus on the contribution of two parent families towards successful exit programs as well as the employment opportunities for the black males. Promoting employment opportunities for black men leads to successful two-parent households, which reduce the need for welfare dependencies (Steinberg, 2014). The contribution of societal cohesion will be measured by analyzing two different exit plans into the various communities (Marsland, 2014).

The use of the administrative data will ensure that the research focuses on many respondents as possible. However, only the administrative data with details on the exit programs will be analyzed to narrow down the study to a sizeable sample. The research intends to analyze the results of about 500 welfare dependent cases with both successful lands unsuccessful exit plans. The validity problems associated with the use of administrative data include the recording errors that exist in such data because it is not meant for research but administrative work. Analyzing the administrative data for research purposes is, therefore, time-consuming. Additionally, the use of administrative data makes it difficult for the research to control the variables of the study. The data is, however, quite accurate thus enabling the researcher to focus on particular individuals hence its choice.

The use of the large sample size is necessary for this study to facilitate the generalization of the results. Welfare dependency and exit plans are central economic concerns for the entire American community. Therefore, the use of the large sample size will ensure that the results of the study apply to various states with different labor markets, human capital, neighborhood, and races. The use of online surveys will substitute the errors that may occur in the utilization of the administrative data from different states. Each variable will be measured independently to determine the best actions for each variable.

References

Alcock, P. & Powell, M. (2014). Concepts and Issues Theoretical Perspectives Social Problems

Social Divisions. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from ://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upmbinaries/36570_Alcock_&_Powell~Vol_1_Ch_01.pdf

Anderson, S. & Gryzlak, B. (2012). Social Work Advocacy in the Post-TANF Environment:

Lessons from Early TANF Research Studies. Social Work, 5(2), 301-314.

Borjas, G. & Sueyoshi, G. (2013). Ethnicity and the Intergenerational Transmission of Welfare

Dependency. 4(3), 212-278.

Davis, P. & Sanchez, M. (2014, August 20). A review of the economic theories of poverty.

Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.niesr.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publications/dp435_0.pdf

Glennerster, H. (2013). United States Poverty Studies and Poverty Measurement: The Past

Twenty‐Five Years. Social Theories, 2(2), 83-107.

Kittay, E. (2013). Dependency, Equality, and Welfare. Feminist Studies, 6(3), 32-32.

Marsland, D. (2014). Moral Hazards, Welfare Dependency, and the Underclass: The Welfare

State as an Enemy of Society. Welfare or Welfare State?, 2(2), 109-132.

Segalman, R. & Marsland, D. (2012). The Extent of Welfare Dependency in America. Cradle to

Grave, 4(3), 86-90.

Segalman, R. & Marsland, D. (2012). Welfare Dependency. Cradle to Grave, 3(5), 9-13.

Steinberg, S. (2014). Separate Societies: Poverty and Inequality in U.S. Cities. Contemporary

Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 2(1), 82-83.