Best Essay Writing Service Paper on Chinese (Han) vs. Uighurs

Chinese (Han) vs. Uighurs

Intercultural Communication

Introduction

“There is no way to peace; peace is the way.” This is a familiar saying and many people across the world have in one way or the other identified themselves with the same. Many have tried to define peace, but the only way one can know the meaning of peace is when it is not there. In a chaotic circumstance, there are clear illustrations that can depict lack of peace, forcing the learner to understand what it means to have peace. The UN holds meetings, leadership summit conferences, peace meetings, all in the name of ensuring that peace prevails between state borders and peace amongst nations in a given region (Nan, 2012). . Many resources are utilized in building peaceful and harmonious nations and communities, mobilizing people for peace making forums and sensitizing many to enhance peace amongst themselves, their neighbors, and the world in general (Neuliep, 2015).

State leaders and president fights any chances that may render their countries and states peace less, and use this agenda even to bring their people together. In this attempt, many have been dubbed as ambassadors of peace, peacemakers, mediators and in all these; their common goal is to ensure that their subjects are living peaceful lives (Kahn, 1988). Studies have shown that in the countries where civil and ethnic wars are experienced, the growth rate slows and the respective states rags behind in terms of national growth and development, economic growth, population growth and other aspects of life that are considered to leading people to a standard life.

In most cases, chaos, and mutual misunderstanding may be a result of such factors as political based violence, insecurity reasons, tribal and ethnic hatred, people fighting for such national resources as land, water sources, boundaries and so on (Neuliep, 2015). To some extent, political based violence has been witnessed in various nations across the global with leaders fighting for the “bog job”. For instance, we are aware of the political cases in such nations as Burkina Faso, Egypt, DR Congo, Central African Republic, Syria, conflicts between Chinese (Han) and Uighurs, and some countries in the Middle East.

In these situations, dialogue is believed to be a key solution in ending these challenges. This may involve leaders from different political divide, independent people, religious leaders, and even the UN (Martin, & Nakayama, 2007). The goal of such a dialogue setup is to ensure that the fighting communities, states, and regions embrace peace, sign peace declarations, and sensitize their respective subjects on the benefits of keeping and living in harmony (Neuliep, 2015). Various governments have sent peacekeepers to the affected countries, for instance, the peacekeeping mission in Somalia.

Discussing dialogue as a tool of reconciliation, we need to understand that communication is the significant factor in this case. This may involve the communication from the involved parties, states, countries, communities, and cultures. Hence, there is a great importance of intercultural dialogue to bring all on board to facilitate the agenda of mediation and peacemaking (Kahn, 1988). This paper has identified an intercultural interaction that has occurred within the past year involving at least two distinct cultural groups. A research was carried out on the interaction in news outlets and academic journals in order to provide an intercultural analysis of the case. The cultures involved are well studies to identify the causes, and the practical solution that can render peace in the said communities (Neuliep, 2015). In other cases, there are areas where religious reasons have lead to wars and chaos, and lives of many are lost. Nevertheless, in all areas whatsoever, dialogue and intercultural communication has been found to be a key tool tom solve such disagreements. The intercultural communication process to use in peace making peace may use the following process: identify the problem, define the problem, analyze the problem, collect and analyze data, brainstorming on the solution, consensus, action plan and eventually monitor the healing process and progress (Kahn, 1988).

The reason why this case is understood as an intercultural communication event is that the interaction involved two tribes that were in conflict and each was practicing a different culture, traditions, and beliefs from the other. Hence, the conflict resolution may be termed as an event of intercultural communication and the involved communities were in a peacekeeping mission. The thesis statement for this work is, “the conflict resolution between Chinese (Han) vs. Uighurs through intercultural communication.” In various ways, different sources and data have been used in compiling this work and such are well referenced at the end of the paper.

In the case between the Chinese and the Uighurs, the conflict is religious based. The Uighurs are Muslims who regard themselves as racially close to central Asian nations. They have settled in a region where the economy has for many years revolved around agriculture, and trade. They have such towns as Kashgar that has been thriving well as a hub along the famous Silk Road.

Literature Review

Peacemaking and intercultural communication cases like the one presented between the Chinese and the Uighurs is a problem-solving event. It focuses on analyzing the specific conflict issues that may be due to diplomatic recognition or other policies that are affecting each of the tribes. Intercultural communication may be facilitated by a neutral third party who stands between the opponents. They may include the following phases; dialogue meetings, encourage participation from the conflicting teams, managing angry encounters, interpret the observations, giving summaries and make recommendations. The neutrality of the third party means that they are in support of the views from both sides, but still unafraid to display passion in the pursuit of peace (Kahn, 1988).

This study has identified an intercultural communication scholarship that is significant in the Chinese and the Uighurs interaction. In basic terms, the interaction involved a peacemaking process that would see the two cultures being reunited. As much as the conflict was destined to end, the participants were encouraged to improve on their communication and this enhanced peace amongst them and the ability to work and live together (Kahn, 1988). Peacemaking surfaces individual differences in values, personality, motivation, style of handling conflict, and typical group behavior. Intercultural communication in peacemaking deals pressed the involved communities to give their perceptions, and pushed them to give clarity on their respective identities (Kahn, 1988). The communication is facilitated by a confrontation with the truth from either of the conflicting groups. It is then supported by the patterns of balance and rhythms of harmony across multiple levels of reality that are tapped in the peacemaking process.

Intercultural communication has a few disciplines that work together in the pursuit of peace and harmony amongst conflicting communities. Such disciplines include:

  1. Respond to individual persons depending on the way you find them and not according to their stories and history you heard from other people. This enables one to seek a deeper understanding of the individuals’ identity (Holiday et al., 2010).
  2. Avoid “cheap” answers about how individuals are.
  3. Appreciating that every community or society has a complex setup of cultures varying from one people to another. This helps people to appreciate diversity, hence appreciate people who are of different cultures and tribes (Holiday et al., 2010). In this way, conflicts are solved because the societies understand that we do not necessarily need to be same. In preserving the national heritage, it is significantly important for people to embrace each other from the different regions they come from.
  4. People are taught how build thick descriptions of what happens amongst themselves and other persons. This enables to identify a mode of communication as you interact with people of different cultures. At this point, people must learn how to communicate to people of different lifestyles, the old, the young, the learned and the unlearned, the civilized, and people from all spheres of life (Holiday et al., 2010).
  5. In addition to the above, people must learn to respect whatever other people practice in their cultures, their norms, and traditions (Holiday et al., 2010). People from a particular tribe should take what the other community says as an evidence of what they would like to project as opposed to taking it as information on where they originate.
  6. In as much we one considers their community better than the other, one should take what people say about their particular culture as an observation and opinion, that is personal and should not be taken as a general view of the whole culture. This way, you cannot judge a whole community, or a people from the opinions or views that have been expressed from one-person (Chitakornkijsil, 2010).Though other people may have the same opinions, it is not prudent to give a general conclusion on that tribe by drawing it from a single individual.
  7. To find a deeper understanding of individual people’s identity, one must avoid preconceptions, appreciate the complexity in various cultures, and avoid over generalizing from an individual person (Holiday et al., 2010).
  8. Finally, different cultures may come up with ways of enhancing the peace amongst them, avoid cases of incitement against each other, share the limited resources equally, and ensure equitable positions of leadership, governance, and senior decision making bodies that they have.

There is various importance of communication across cultures as illustrated by Novinger. Communication is a system of behavior, and since various cultures often demand very different behaviors, intercultural communication is more complex than any other communication between persons of the same culture (Novinger, 2001). All communication takes place in composure of different cultures and hence the difference in cultures may be seen as a primary obstacle to intercultural communication. In other instances where communication is non-verbal, passing information across cultures may be a basis to encourage intercultural communication. Interpretation and translation of information across the cultures may vary, with an ultimate goal of enhancing a cultural grip (Novinger, 2001).

In areas with a high-context communication module, different cultures and communities consider it impolite to respond in a particular manner to a request, a question, or even a compliment. For instance, it is impolite in Japan and Mexico to answer negatively to a request. Hence, it is advisable to give such a reply as, “maybe”, “I will try” as opposed to a “no” in the response (Novinger, 2001). This way, their cultures are customized to make people learn about courtesy, and discipline in little children and the adults as well. This only illustrates the diversity in the cultures and the way other might learn from the people of a diverse culture. In an attempt to enhance and increase the much-needed intercultural communication competency, is of great significance and helpful to know the kinds of obstacles that are often and occurs when people are in pursuit of arriving at an acceptable shared meanings across the cultural divide and boundaries (Lustig, et al., 2006). These obstacles when realized will help avoid, challenge, and propel around the prospective pitfalls and such setbacks as well (Novinger, 2001).

Communication across culture may translate involvement of dissimilar cultures even beyond borders. Since different cultures are identified with a unique communication technique and module, then the micro cultural differences between one tribe, society, community and a people. Cultural variance facilitates intercultural communication the way it brings together a matrix of various perspectives of different cultures. In amidst of geographical and cultural barriers, the consistency in intercultural communication has been used as a model to make the world a global village. There are various concepts that illustrate how cultures are different from others. They includes

  1. Culture is defined as a set of norms from where things are run. This is the way different people do different things; according to the way they were oriented in their respective upbringing (Seelye, 1984).
  2. Culture defines the logic by which different people give rules to the worldly systems (Samovar, et al. 1981).
  3. Culture is comprised of the knowledge, experience, meanings, beliefs, values, attitudes, religions, self-concepts, the universe, and self-universe, relationships, hierarchies of beings and status, role expectations, spatial relations, and time concepts. It manifests both in patterns of language and thought, and in the forms of activity and behavior. Hence, culture can be seen as a factor of communication (Samovar, et al.2009).

Anthropologists argue that culture is not a single thing in specific, rather a complex and composure of series of interrelated human activities with origins from the past (Novinger, 2001).

At this instance, communication is defined from culture as the system of co-adaptation that sustains a society. Human communication is characterized by two messages namely the intermittent in occurrence and referred to as the new informational aspect. The other one is continuous relational aspect of interpersonal communication (Novinger, 2001).

Analysis

The intercultural communication study is a lifetime endeavor (Samovar, et al. 2009). This adventure of interrelating communication between two or more cultures between the Chinese and the Uighurs involved finding out the conflict issues amongst themselves and finding practical solution to these issues. The conflict arose mainly from the religious reasons where due to the intermittent autonomy and occasional independence, the region where the Uighurs has settled became under the Chinese rule in the 18th century (Lustig, et al., 2006). Later on, there was open support for the separatist groups that continued to increase after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of independent Muslim states in the Central Asia. There were demonstrations and series of protests and the Beijing administration was able to suppress the demonstrators, and the activists went underground (Kaltman, 2007).

Though the situation was complex, it is argued that ethnic tensions caused by such factors as economic and cultural factors, became the initial cause of the violence and this lead to in stabilized state due to the lawlessness and unruly often demonstrations. Many and major development projects stalled, though by and large they were revived and have brought major aspects of prosperity even to the big cities in china (Scollon, et al. 2011). In this case, the Han Chinese was alleged to have received the share that included better jobs and the majorities are well and economically stable. This fuelled and brought resentment to the Uighurs.

Over time, human rights activists and the non-government organizations argued that Uighurs’ commercial and cultural activities have been gradually curtailed by the Chinese state. These complaints were so severe that the only way to seek justice was by holding demonstrations and protests. There were also restrictions on Islam, which saw fewer mosques operating and strict control over the religious schools (Kim & Gudykunst, 1988). A report that was published in 2013 by a Rights group Amnesty International shown that the authorities criminalized what they called the “illegal religious” groups and “separatists’ activities” were and these were clamped down on peaceful expressions of cultural identity. Later in July 2014, there were some Xinjiang Government authorities, which banned Muslim civil servants from fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan (Lustig, et al., 2006). This was not the first time where the Chinese authorities gave a restriction ban to fasting to the Muslim civil servants, but it followed a series of crude attacks on the public attributed to Uighur extremists, and this promoted the concerns on the ban that would increase tensions (Lustig, et al., 2006).

The major grievances of the Uighur community comprised of such claims as the central government curtailing their religious, commercial, and cultural activities. In this case, intercultural communication was needful to ensure that the Chinese respects the culture practiced by the Uighur, and allow them continue running their lifestyles as well. In addition, the Beijing authorities are accused of intensifying a crackdown after street protests in Xinjiang in the 1990s and in the run-up of the Beijing Olympics in 2008 as well (Dodd, 1991). Hence, this influenced the Uighur to raise their concerns through demonstrations and protests.

Conclusion

As discussed above, we can conclude that intercultural communication was a good weapon to use in the conflict between the Chinese and the Uighurs. Having engaged the authorities from the two conflicting tribes, scholars have concluded that the dialogue and the peace making processes that engaged the two communities, Xinjiang has received a reasonable state investment in industry and energy (Chen, & Starosta, 1998). In addition, the Uighurs have made major steps and though they have remained a potential violent force, their activities are closely monitored by the authorities and are now living peacefully with the Beijing inhabitants. (Acharya, et al.2010).

Intercultural communication may be applied in other such states where there are conflicts resulting from cultural reasons, religious reasons and others that are in conflict due to the inequitable distribution of the national resources. This will be a good approach even to end civil wars and wars between borders of such countries.

References

Acharya, A., Gunaratna, R., & Pengxin, W. (2010). Ethnic identity and national conflict in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1998). Foundations of intercultural communication. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Chitakornkijsil, P. (2010). Intercultural Communication Challenges and Multinational Organization Communication. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 3(2), 6-20. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/763168869?accountid=1611

Dodd, C. H. (1991). Dynamics of intercultural communication. Brown Publishers. Cincinatti, OH.

      Holiday, A., Hyde, M., & Kullman, J. (2010). Intercultural Communication, An advanced resource book for Students. Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN.

Kahn, L. S. (1988). Peacemaking: A systems approach to conflict management. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Kaltman, B. (2007). Under the heel of the dragon: Islam, racism, crime, and the Uighur in China. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Kim, Y. Y., & Gudykunst, W. B. (1988). Theories in intercultural communication (Vol. 12). Sage Publications, Inc., 2111 West Hillcrest Dr., Newbury Park, CA 91320; Speech Communication Association, 5105 Backlick Rd., Building E, Annandale, VA 22003.

Lustig, M. W., Koester, J., & Zhuang, E. (2006). Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures. Pearson/A and B.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2007). Intercultural communication in contexts. Mc-Graw Hill: New York.

Nan, S. A. (2012). Peacemaking: From practice to theory. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.

Neuliep, J. W. (2014). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. New York: SAGE Publications.

Novinger, T. (2001). Intercultural communication: A practical guide. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & McDaniel, E. R. (2009). Intercultural communication: A reader. South Melbourne, Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., Jain, N. C., & Sullivan, R. (1981). Understanding intercultural communication (Vol. 13). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Scollon, R., Scollon, S. W., & Jones, R. H. (2011). Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Seelye, H. N. (1984). Teaching Culture. Strategies for Intercultural Communication. Woodland Hills, VA: National Textbook Company.