1. A: Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Luxembourg

B: European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

C: France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany

D: A common Market is a group of countries imposing no or few duties on trade with each other and a similar tariff on trade with other countries. This was also the name of the European Union or European Economic Community, used in the 1960s and 1970s.

  • A: United kingdom

B: Greece

C: Poland

  • – Countries that opposed Integration argued that a level of sovereignty had to be ceded in order for the union to function as had been planned. This, they were not ready to comply with.
  • Countries that opposed also argued that control of some natural resources and infrastructure had to be given to the Union, which put them at the mercy of the Union.
  • Countries that were for integration argued that the business opportunities that would be available and the expanded market would beallow economic growth of the member states
  • Pro-integration countries also pointed to the security benefits that would come as a result. Most of them had been badly affected by the Second World War and the Union presented a fresh start and some sort of renewal. Collaboration in Financial and military matters would improve their physical and economic security.
  • A. The countries had to fulfill conditions as stated in the Copenhagen criteria.
  • They had to implement a secular and democratic government
  • Political Stability of institutions that guarantees democracy, human rights and a functioning market economy, The rule of law, justice, respect and justice for all
  • Acceptance of the Community standards: able to take on the membership obligations, like adherence to the political aims of the economic and monetary union

B. The former soviet countries have been complying with the conditions and joining one after the other over time.

C:        Bulgaria – Budapest

            Latvia – Riga

            Lithuania – Vilnius

D:        Iceland – Reykjavik

            Norway – Oslo

  • Soft power Policy
  • Use of diplomacy, history, culture, policies and institutions to persuade and attract the other country to a level where the country comes in line with the policies and values of the other power without use of force and coercion.

Hard power Policy

  • An aggressive use of economic and military means to influence the behavior and policies of the politically and economically weaker country by the stronger and more aggressive country
  • Rifkin’s sentiments are correct because, more executions continue to be carried out in America as compared to Europe, where almost all countries use life imprisonment instead. America is also known to be more religious in comparison to the Europe and its history and Legal system is more intertwined and modelled after Christian Ideologies compared to Europe. 56% of Americans support the death penalty as compared to averagely less than 50 % in most of Europe.
  • Racial or political prejudice often result in the sentencing to death of innocent people. Other shortcomings in investigations and legal official’s competencies also contribute to the sentencing of innocent people. This is true and can be attested to in the American legal system, which has a significant number of people from certain ethnicities incarcerated and sentenced where there, was legal technicalities and later found to be innocent.
  • Despair among families of innocent suspects: This may be true but cannot be used as a basis to oppose the death penalty since, when the suspect is guilty, even some families are usually victims of these individuals.
  • It takes time to prosecute the suspect and him or she may have changed. This case may apply to some cases while it may not be the same for others. Some cases may be so adverse that redemption may not be an option, for instance terrorism and mass murder. If clarified however, this sentiment may be validated.
  • Capital punishment does not prevent crime, denial of freedom does. This notion is best applicable in some environments, societies and cultures. In others, it may pose challenges especially in integrated and mixed societies where there is a clash on cultural, religious and other fronts. It may apply to European countries where there is generally well-developed security and legal structures but not, say for, Yemen.
  • I). Cradle of democracy: Greece

ii).        Country of Painters, Sculptors, and architects: Italy

iii).       Dance from Cossack: Ukraine

iv).       Britain

v).        Denmark

vi).       France

vii).      Turkey

ix).       Spain

x).        Republic of Ireland


Angela Merkel – Germany

David Cameron – Britain

Francois Hollande – France

Vladmir Putin – Russia

Name of Capitals

London: The United Kingdom

Berlin: Germany

Paris: France

Madrid: Spain

Warsaw: Poland

Rome: Italy

Athens: Greece

Moscow: The Russia Federation