Article Review on the Impact of Work Context on Work Response Review

Article Review on the Impact of Work Context on Work Response Review

Full Bibliographic Citation

Valentine, S., Godkin, L., Fleischman, G. M., & Kidwell, R. (2011). Corporate ethical values, group creativity, job satisfaction and turnover intention: The impact of work context on work response. Journal of Business Ethics98(3), 353-372.

Main arguments

  1. The authors conducted this study with an aim of evaluating the degree to which superficial corporate ethical values and group creativity enhanced job satisfaction and minimized turnover intention. After conducting this study, the authors established that ethical values could strengthen corporate culture to yield favorable responses from employees.
  2. The authors also established that corporate ethical values and group creativity related with each other positively. The authors were able to establish this from the results they obtained from the data collected and analyzed. 
  3. Furthermore, the authors established that both corporate ethical values and group creativity enhanced job satisfaction. The authors established this from the data they collected and analyzed.  
  4. Throughout the article, the authors argue that ethical practices can be powerful tools for enhancing organizations. This argument is evident right from the introduction to the conclusion of the article.    
  5. The authors also argue that when organizations dedicate time and resources to developing ethical frameworks, employees respond by developing positive job attitudes (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 354). The authors demonstrated this from the responses they obtained from research participants.  
  6. Apart from relying on ethical practices, the authors argue that when organizations encourage workers to be creative in their duties, they enable them to develop the right job attitudes. Employees are satisfied with their jobs and their intentions to leave those jobs reduce significantly.
  7. Throughout the article, the authors argue that job satisfaction and corporate ethical values correlate negatively with turnover intention. This means that employees that are satisfied with their jobs are unlikely to leave their jobs. On the contrary, employees dissatisfied with their jobs are likely to leave their jobs.
  8. Based on the study’s findings, the authors argue that sales managers should establish corporate cultures that lead to group creativity and corporate ethical values to minimize employee turnover.
  9. The authors argue that organizations are likely to experience additional benefits when they interact positively with employees (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 354). In this response, the authors encourage organizations to provide environments that can enable employees to interact with employers positively.
  10. Finally, the authors argue that there is increased creativity among employees that perceive increased corporate ethical values at their places of work (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 357).

Key strengths

  1. In terms of strengths, the article is well organized with a number of subtopics that cover specific items. The first part of the article introduces the main arguments while the other parts of the article link those arguments clearly.
  2. The article introduces and links main arguments, and supports its main arguments with literature. For example, when introducing the main arguments at the introduction part, the article identifies clearly the various literatures that support its arguments. In addition, after introducing the main point, the article goes further to demonstrate what evidences from previous studies suggest (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 354).
  3. To support its main arguments and hypotheses, the article makes use of diagrams that are easy to understand. For example, the diagram on page 354 that elaborates hypothesized relationships between various variables in the article is clear and easy to understand.
  4. Apart from using diagrams, the article also makes use of statistical tables that are easy to understand. For example, the statistical table on page 362 is simple and easy to understand thereby simplifying some of the article’s results.  
  5. The article clearly identifies its contribution in the current literature. This strengthens the article because the authors appear to understand their mandates in their area of specialization.   
  6. The authors are comparing variables that are comparable. For example, the authors are comparing group creativity with job satisfaction. These two variables are comparable because they relate with one another. In addition, they are easy to demonstrate how they relate.  
  7. The authors do not contradict their main arguments. They elaborate and support their main arguments throughout the article.
  8. Rather than covering the study’s limitations, the authors have identified the limitations and indicated how they can weaken their study. For example, the authors have identified how the method used to collect data can weaken the study by indicating that there were potential source biases. In addition, the authors have clearly stated that they do not warrant claim of causality on the method they used to collect their data (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 367).  
  9. At the end of the article, the authors have provided a list of references. This strengthens the article in the sense that a person understands that the authors have not relied on their own knowledge alone, but they have referred to other studies.
  10. The methodology used in the study has been outlined clearly. In particular, the authors have been keen to outline how they collected and analyzed their data as well as how they conceptualized their variables.  

Weaknesses

  1. As the article’s authors pinpoint, the manner in which data collection took place may have weakened the study especially through source bias. Normally, when collecting data, one has the duty of eliminating possible sources of biases. However, the article’s authors appear like they downplayed this fact even if they understood it. In particular, they used self-report questionnaires to collect data that was vulnerable to biases from research participants.     
  2. In relation to the source bias, the article does not warrant claims of causality (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 367). Once again, this weakens the study because the authors do not guarantee that the method used to collect data was authentic. In order to deal with this problem, the authors should have issued a warrant of causality. This would have at least guaranteed that the method used to collect data was authentic. Therefore, given that the article’s author did not issue that warrant of causality, then the article is somewhat weak.     
  3. The study’s population comes from an education-based healthcare organization as well as from sales and marketing employees. While this study’s population is not representative of all employees, the authors have generalized their findings. In particular, the authors start their article by claiming that a corporate culture enhanced by ethical values as well as other business practices is likely to yield favorable responses from employees (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 353). Although this statement appears to be credible, it weakens the study because the study does not represent all employees. Indeed, employees from other sectors might change the study’s findings if they are included in the study. Therefore, this is a weakness.  
  4. While it is obvious that the article’s authors have made some assumptions, they have not highlighted those assumptions anywhere in the article. Under normal circumstances, it is usually advisable for one to highlight the assumptions that one makes in his/her study. In contrast to this practice, the article’s authors have not highlighted such assumptions while it is obvious that they have made such assumptions. Failing to highlight these assumptions weakens the study and its findings.
  5. The study has relied heavily on the literature that is beyond ten years old. Although there is no limit of the numbers of years one should include in his/her study, normal practices demand we use the latest literature in our studies. This practice shows that one is familiar with the current literature that normally builds on old literature. Nonetheless, including old literature in the study does not disqualify the study from being credible, but it weakens it by making it appear as one of the studies conducted many years ago.
  6. Normally, you would expect the number of working men to be more than that of women or that number to be roughly equal to that of women. However, looking at the study, it is clear that the number of working men that took part in the study is about 27 percent while that of women is 73 percent (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 360). This finding contradicts normal practices. It also undermines the credibility of the study because common knowledge tells us that we have more working men than women. As a result, this finding weakens the study.
  7. Once again, looking at the research participants in both studies, it is clear that all of these research participants come from the USA. However, even if this is the case, the article’s authors have all along generalized their findings. As opposed to doing this, the authors would have at least limited their findings to USA. This would have at least strengthened their study even though it would not eliminate the mistakes they have made elsewhere.
  8. While the authors relied on self-reported questionnaires for the first study, the authors supplied the research participants in the second study with questionnaires and even sent such questionnaires to other research participants (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 362). This practice may appear to be alright because the authors ended up with data at the end of the day. However, the practice exposed the study to some influence from the research participants in the sense that they might have shared information while filing in the questionnaire. If the research participants did this without the knowledge of the article’s authors, then the study’s findings were flawed. On the contrary, the researchers should have collected the data in a better way that could have eliminated some problems that relate to data collection process. This could have strengthened the study. However, because the researchers did not do that, then their study is somewhat weak.
  9. The study gives majority of its results in statistical form without explaining all of them. For example, on page 363 article’s authors simply state that “an initial . . . df = 71, p<0.001 . . . RMSEA = 0.111.” A person that is not familiar with statistics might not understand these figures. Consequently, he/she might just see figures without understanding their meaning or relevance in the study.
  10. Finally, before conducting the study the authors did not state whether they had any interest in this study or how they dealt with such interest if anyone of them had such interest. Stating whether they had any interest would be a noble thing to do. In addition, stating how they dealt with such interest if they had such interest would also be a noble thing as well because it would eliminate any doubt one may have with the study.           

Personal insights about government/business relations

  1. Study’s findings indicate that group creativity correlate positively with job satisfaction, but it correlates negatively with turnover intention. At a personal level, I understand that organizations should encourage group creativity to minimize turnover intention among employees.
  2. Study’s findings also indicate that corporate ethical values correlate negatively with turnover intention. In this respect, I understand that organizations should promote ethical practices to minimize employee turnover intentions.    
  3. The authors found that job satisfaction correlated negatively with turnover intention. This means that if organizations want to retain employees, they should ensure that their employees are satisfied with their jobs. On the contrary, if employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, they are likely to leave their jobs sooner. From this understanding, I fathom that organizations should develop positive work situations to retain employees (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 361).
  4. It is evident from the study that when organizations encourage employees to be creative, they minimize employee turnover. From this understanding, it appears that when organizations do not encourage their employees to be creative, employees are likely to leave their jobs. However, if they encourage them to be creative, then they are unlikely to leave their jobs.
  5. It is also clear from the study that perceived corporate ethical values promote creativity among employees. As a result, employers should promote ethical values to encourage employees to be creative.   
  6. Both corporate ethical values and group creativity are associated with job satisfaction that minimizes turnover intention among employees. As a result, organizations should promote these two things to minimize turnover intentions among their employees.
  7. Certain factors such as increased communication, employee training and effective codes of conduct can promote some organizational practices. As a result, organizations should develop desirable work contexts by promoting these factors (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 355).      
  8. From the study’s findings, it is clear that organizations benefit immensely when they promote ethical practices among employees (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 354). In this respect, organizations’ top management teams should promote these practices for their organizations to benefit from employees’ input.
  9. It is also clear from the study that collaborative leadership is critical in organizations because it enhances the outcomes of creativity among employees.
  10. Finally, employees should have a positive perception towards their work environments if they are to be creative (Valentine et al. 2011, p. 357). Otherwise, if they have a negative perception towards their work environments, then they are unlikely to be creative. In conclusion, a number of factors influence creativity among employees. In this respect, the top managements for organizations should try as much as possible to understand these factors.    

Main themes/concepts Linkages with Public Management Issues

  1. The first linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that employers/organizations should develop corporate ethical values to promote creativity among employees.  
  2. The second linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that job satisfaction minimizes turnover intention.  
  3. The third linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that corporate ethical values promote job satisfaction.  
  4. The fourth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that corporate ethical values yield favorable responses from employees.  
  5. The fifth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that organizations experience additional benefits when they promote ethical practices.   
  6. The sixth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that group creativity and corporate ethical values relate with each other and that they promote job satisfaction.
  7. The seventh linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that corporate ethical values enhance organizations.   
  8. The eighth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that ethical frameworks enable employees to develop the right job responses.   
  9. The ninth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that organizations should develop corporate ethical values that promote creativity among employees.  
  10. The tenth linkage between concepts/themes in the article and public management issues is that perceived ethical values should promote creativity among employees.