The Impact of Teamwork on Employee Performance in Strategic Management and the Performance Improvement Department of Abu Dhabi Police, UAE

 

 

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Abstract

As a management aspect, strategic management plays an important role in having effective teamwork. Strategic management should play an integral part of management as it enhances teamwork and improves the performance of individual employees and the whole of the strategic management in the ADP. This study is important as it seeks to show the effectiveness of teamwork as a strategy aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the employees in the strategic management department in the ADP which is a not for profit organization. The study showed the steps that need to be taken in the department to attain the desired goal of effective teamwork. The approach used by the study was a deductive one with a quantitative survey to examine the effects of teamwork on the performance of individual employees as well as the general performance of the department of strategic department of the ADP. To gather quantitative data detailing the existing situation in the strategic management department, structured questionnaires and interviews were utilized. The study was applied to 80 respondents from the department. The data gathered from the survey was analyzed using an average calculated using liker scale mean formula. The findings of the study revealed that teamwork was necessary in enhancing the performance of individual employees as well as the whole department of strategic management. Team spirit has helped the department to have its operations more improved and the same strategy should be duplicated in the rest of the organization.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 – Introduction. 5

1.1 Research objectives. 7

1.2 Research Questions. 8

1.4 Significance of the study. 8

1.5 Study justification. 9

1.6 Abu Dhabi Police. 9

1.6.1 The ADP Mission and Vision. 10

1.7 Dissertation structure. 13

1.8 Definitions. 14

Chapter 2: Teamwork and employee performance in nonprofit making organizations. 17

2.1Chapter overview.. 17

2.2 Basics of teamwork. 17

2.2.1 Developing teamwork. 20

2.2.2 Components of good teamwork for organizational culture. 24

2.3 Strategic management 25

2.3.1 The five facets of strategic management 26

2.3.2 Strategic planning and Strategic Management 28

2.4 Teamwork as a Strategy for management 29

2.5 Teamwork and autonomy. 30

2.6 Teamwork and job satisfaction. 30

2.7 Teamwork and performance. 31

2.8 Negative consequences of teamwork on performance. 33

2.9 Summary of Literature review.. 34

Chapter 3 - Methodology. 35

3.1 Approach. 35

3.2 Research Approach and Philosophy. 36

3.3 Research methods. 38

3.4 Research Strategy. 38

3.4.1 Case Study. 38

3.4.2 Surveys. 38

3.4.3 Time Horizons. 39

3.5 Data collection methods. 39

3.5.1 Semi-structured interviews. 40

3.5.2 Secondary methods of collecting Data. 40

3.5.3 Questionnaires. 41

3.6 Population and sample Selection. 42

3.7 Reliability and validity. 43

Chapter 4 - Data Analysis. 44

4.1 Questionnaires. 44

4.2 Hypothesis testing. 46

4.3 Data analysis. 47

4.3.1 Good employee relations. 48

4.3.2 Teamwork and employee autonomy. 48

4.3.3 Impact of teamwork on the learning environment 49

4.3.4 Teamwork and job satisfaction. 51

4.3.5 Negative consequences of teamwork. 53

4.3.6 Teamwork and organizational environment 54

4.3.7 Teamwork and performance. 55

4.3.8 Teamwork and strategic management 57

Chapter 5 - Conclusion. 59

5.1 Overview.. 59

5.2 Conclusion of the study based on objectives. 59

Chapter 6 - Recommendations. 66

7.0 References. 70

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Background

The Abu Dhabi Police (ADP) is one of the organizations in the UAE that face a myriad of challenges. Therefore, the ADP recognizes the need for their members of staff to have the confidence and ability to cope with any situation they may come across. The work of this police force is diverse and it requires members of staff to be effective and focused on their work. The work of a police officer is full of challenges that the officers should be in a position to deal with effectively. The officers cannot be negligent in any of their roles since this could adversely affect the entire community (Grant, 2004). In most cases, the officers will deliver the expected results when they are working as a group. Teamwork among the officers is of great importance that it is what guarantees the force its survival (Kapucu, maria-Elena & Krause, 2007, p. 2).

                Teamwork in the ADP is of great significance over a number of reasons. According to Salas, Goodwin & Burke (2008, p. 163), those organizations that accepted this concept in their activities have enjoyed some advantages such as easier problem solving, higher productivity and autonomy of the employees. In places where it is managed properly, the concept has led to the improvement of the morale of the workers, which translates, into increased productivity. When employees have teamwork as they work, there are some benefits that lead to positive impact on the organization (Fröbel & Marchington. 2005, p. 265). The changes being witnessed in the modern world of business has made teamwork a reality as the sharing of knowledge has a direct contribution to success. The sharing of information has to be done across all levels of management, from the executive to the lowest rank. There is so much information that is available for use in business today that is crucial since the operations of every entity increase in complexity. The opportunity to work in teams should be accorded all employees as this helps them to learn from one another and generate innovative ideas that can help in making the activities of the organization better (Wilson, 2008, p. 44).

            When employees work as a team, they are encouraged to cooperate with one another rather than compete. The methods used by the employees to work determine an organizations performance (Jenner, Foote & Zhao, 2010, p. 8).  This is determined by whether there is an organizational culture that enhances high performance among the executive and line managers (Russell, 2005, p. 45). The researcher used a case study in order to understand the role of working as a team in improving productivity and efficiency. The collection of data is done through the use of semi-structured interviews and unstructured questionnaires. The data collected in this way will then be analyzed by thematic analysis. Unstructured questionnaires do not feature a particular questioning method in terms of the flow of questions. They have more flexibility in terms of method and content of questioning.

1.1  Research objectives

This study is not intended for the assertion of the already written literature on the impact of working as a team impacts the performance of non-profit making organizations. It does not even attempt to show a different way that could be better. The purpose of the study is look into the positive impact that the use of teamwork have in not for profit organizations. It is aimed at showing how teamwork can be of positive results in the ADP. The following are the specific objectives of the study:

Objective 1 – to specify the kind of support or guidance that employees may require form the top management if their organizations.

Objective 2 – evaluate the team’s effectiveness with regard to team autonomy, job satisfaction and performance. It is important to have this revolution is important to the organization as a whole that can lead to the increase in service delivery (Russell, 2005, p. 45).

Objective 3 – Identify the advantages of working as a team as well, with regard to the performance is concerned.

Objective 4 – Identify how working as a team is related performance.

Objective 5 – establish recommendations for the ADP, which will result in the enhancement of teamwork in its operations.

1.2 Research Questions

The answers to the following will help the study to attain its goals and objectives:

1.      What components that have relevance to non-profit making organizations such as the strategic management department of the ADP? How does the components of teamwork encourage people to work together as a team as a strategy to improve performance in the strategic department?

2.      How can the teamwork be enhanced in the ADP’s strategic management department?

3.      Does effective teamwork have an effect on employee autonomy, satisfaction with the job and the overall performance of the employees of ADP’s department of strategic department?

 

1.5 significance of the study

The study is significant as it looks at the effects of the employees working as a team in the department of Strategic Management and Performance Improvement Department in the Abu Dhabi Police in the United Arab Emirates. It is common in non-profit making organizations for the employees to operate without teamwork, as they do not have [profit objectives to attain. Teamwork is a strategy that should be employed in the modern workforce that is more flexible. The use of this strategy will lead to the improvement of the performance of the employees as well as the entire organization. This study will show why profit making bodies employ teamwork as a strategy and why those who are not for profit should emulate them in order to achieve more effectiveness and performance.

 

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1.5 Study justification

In studying the phenomena of teamwork, this study will make use of the case study as one of its methods. The researcher in the Abu Dhabi Police, which is a non-profit making organization, undertook the case study. The importance of the study in organizations is that they will comprehend the effects of teamwork in achieving strategic management and improving the effectiveness and performance of the members of staff in organizations like the ADP that are not for making profit. Out of this study, the department of strategic management will realize the basic management principles to be used with regard to teamwork and performance among the employees.

1.6 Abu Dhabi Police

The Abu Dhabi Police was established in January 1957 by the first president of the State of Abu Dhabi, the late H. H. Shaikh Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahayan. The president was the elder brother of the late H. H. Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahayan who is credited with the establishment of the United Arab Emirates. The aim of Shaihk Shakhbut was to establish and build a strong and independent government that would provide security to its citizens and maintain peace in the entire country (Strategic Plans, 2010). The initial duties of the police department were to maintain watch in crucial places such as market places, residences of rulers, banks and ships that were sailing in from other parts of the world. Each location had two police officers assigned to it. During that time, the police officers serving in the ADP were about 80. The Coast Guards Unit, which was a part of the ADP, was established in 1960 with the first batch of patrols being established in 1962. In 1963, the initial Police Music Band was set up. These are the key milestones in the establishment of the ADP (ADP, 2010, p. 1).

1.6.1 The ADP Mission and Vision

The mission of the Abu Dhabi police is ‘to work in an environment where cooperation is exercised in providing a safe and secure society while containing no criminal activities. The society they want to have is a stable one which ensures, public rights are upheld’ (ADP, 2010, p. 1). ADP’s vision is to have in place a professional police force that has its main objective as the protection of the entire community and keeping it rid of any criminal activities. This will spread confidence in the government and the police force among the people. They are also interested in making the organization to be efficient by training and motivating its staff members. The education of the officers and the use of modern technology in their work are supported and encouraged (Strategic Plans, 2010).

             The ASP has set up policies that to be used in identifying problems in local policing and establishing ways of overcoming them. These policies are based on the strategy of solving problems to keep improving the performance and the kind of quality that is provided. All this is done in line with the main aim of the ADP, which is to ensure the safety of the community and eradication of criminal activities. Local policing renders support in making decisions and the allocation of resources while the Headquarters of the ADP police department sustain local policing through consultation and dedicated service. Local policing put emphasis on community services by improving strategies, strategies standards, and policies. They also exercise supervision of the outcomes and evaluate performance progress (ADP, 2010).

1.6.2 Strategic Management & performance improvement Department in the ADP

When the strategic management department in the ADP was established in 2003, it had six sections that included strategic planning, strategy balancing, strategic policy, and support services, evaluation of institutional performance, and research and studies. The aim of setting up this department was to assist the ADP in the development of plans to aid in development of public administration. It was set up based on the developments in the UAE capital particularly in the performance of the police force that needed proper planning direct assessment promoting excellence and innovation (ADP, 2010, para. 1).

            According to the ADP (2010, para. 1), the strategic management department is a critical one in the police force. The ADP is very large in the gulf region, the Middle East, and its working cooperation with the British police. Therefore, it is important to study the use of teamwork in strategic department in the ADP as it helps determine the effectiveness of its activities. Plans were developed for the periodic public administration of the Abu Dhabi Police. Because of the developments achieved in the capital of the UAE, it became necessary to set up the strategic management department. These developments were mainly in the area of performance of the police that take full consideration of the importance of proper planning and directed assessment like the promotion excellence and innovation. Appendix 1 of this report contains more information on the department.

            The strategic operations were a success in the ADP. The strategic management department working with the management of ADP took the initiative to include the use of teamwork as part of strategic management. The various initiatives adopted have time frames within which they are to be achieved. They were setup in 2010 and they have been evaluated on quarterly basis. Since their establishment to date, substantial progress has been achieved.

Leadership structure of the strategic management department

The department of strategic management in the ADP has an organizational structure that is similar to the one below.

Department Reports

Strategic management and development    performance for the General

Directorate of Abu Dhabi Police

Strategic management of Ministry Affairs

Quality Management

Corporate Performance Management and Discrimination

Development Department Organizational

Department of Systems Management Action

Center for Research and Security Studies

Complaints and Suggestions

Department of Quality Improvement

Support Services Division

Regulatory Branch

 Of evidence

Department of Organizational (add noun)

Development

Department of Follow-up

 And Strategy Coordination strategy

Strategic Planning Section

Department for Development of Work Systems

Department of Audit and Quality Improvement

Department of Quality Systems

Department Programs and Awards

Department

 of Measurement

and Development of

institutional performance

Department of Corporate (add noun) 

performance management

General Secretariat of the Minister's Office

Branch Support Services

Office of the Director-General

 

Public administration and development

Of strategic performance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The department has subsections, which are headed by different officers. All these sections work together in cooperation towards the achievement of the overall objectives of the department.

Summary of strategic management department activities

Table 1 of the Appendix indicates the initiatives of the strategic plans and the progress that has been made to date. Once they are achieved, teamwork will be an integral part of the ADP organization. These initiatives are aimed at improving teamwork in the whole of the ADP. As it was indicated, the initiatives for teamwork were to be achieved within a given period. Some of these initiatives have already been achieved so far. Other initiatives that are aimed at improving teamwork in the department are aimed at enhancing the capabilities of the police force. Some of the initiatives included her are the use of mobile patrols in the detecting and solving crimes, use of advanced technology and improving on the methods that the police use to arrest those people who have been placed on the wanted list of the police. Another initiative that is to be put up is a special unit that will be solely dedicated to cases related to money laundering. This will work together with the central bank and other parties interested in the initiative. The initiatives highlighted here are just but a few out of the many that are in the strategic plan.

1.7 Dissertation structure

Chapter 1: introduction; this chapter introduces the research by giving the objectives of the study after establishing the background of the Strategic Management and performance improvement Department in the ADP.

Chapter 2: Literature review; this chapter reviews the past literature concerning the teamwork, strategic management, and employee performance in non-profit making organizations. Both theoretical and empirical literature will be reviewed with findings on the study topic being provided.

Chapter 3: Research methodology; this chapter outlines the various methodologies that the study employs in collecting data and the analysis of the collected data. The study design, methodology, qualitative and sampling techniques are highlighted in addition to the validity, reliability, and limitations of the study.

Chapter 4: this chapter analyzes the data collected on the impact of teamwork as a strategy employed in strategic management on the performance of employees in non-profit making organizations. The responses to the questionnaire and interview questions are analyzed and discussed in this chapter. In addition, the findings regarding the performance of the employees in relation to teamwork are discussed.

Chapter 5: Conclusion; this chapter of the study concludes the research basing on the objectives of the study. It makes conclusions regarding the fulfillment of specific objectives of the study based on the findings of the study.

Chapter Six: recommendations; the recommendations based on the findings of the research are related to strategies on how to improve the performance of employees basing on the application of teamwork to the ADP. Moreover, recommendations on further research are provided.

1.8 Definitions

This paper is about how teamwork is used in the strategic management department of the ADP. Teamwork has been proved to be effective in improving the performance of employees as well as the entire organization. This has been found to be the case even in organizations that are for profit making. The role of the strategic management department was to come up with plans that would help the ADP deal with its responsibilities and challenges that were growing by the day. The definitions that have been used in this thesis have been provided.

Strategic management: this is a process by which organizations draft, implement and evaluates various decisions that eventually contribute to the achievement of its objectives.

Teamwork: according to Ruiz, and Bianey (2004, p. 19), there are several definitions of teamwork that have been provided. Teamwork can be defined as the process of working jointly as a group towards the achievement of a common objective. It is critical in business, as people will be required to work together at all times to achieve their intended goals. It helps the people to help one another even in trying times. Teamwork can be seen clearly in the assembly of precuts where different people work on different parts that will eventually be combined to produce the desired product. Teamwork becomes more complex in areas where its aim is to improve the production process and it requires communication and integrative work (Kapucu, Maria-Elena & Krause, 2007, p. 2). For the sake of this study, a team will be used to refer to a group or groups of employees with a common objective. The members of the team have the authority to regulate the execution of the collective tasks mutually (Critchley, Edwards & Fallon, 2007, p. 10).

Strategic management: according to Teamwork’ (2007, p. 12), strategic management refers to how the top management of the organization envisions its future and develops steps of action that will lead to the desired goals or objectives of the organization. These steps will be achieved within a stipulated period with progress review along the way.

                        Non-profit organizations: according to De Vita & Fleming (2001, p. 206), these are organizations that are created under rules that prohibit the distribution of profits to the owners.

                        Performance improvement: this refers to the improvement of the processes of the functions of an entity or individual according to what is desired or expected. The aim of this is to improve the quality of the services and products that are provided. Results are achieved through a process that considers the institutional context, describes desired performance, identifies gaps between desired and actual performance, identifies root causes for the given performance, selects interventions to close the gaps and measures changes in performance (according to Salas, Goodwin & Burke (2008, p. 77).

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2: Teamwork and employee performance in nonprofit making organizations

2.1Chapter overview

All kinds of organizations are finding teamwork to be of great importance to their daily activities particularly in the performance of individual employees and eventually the whole organization (Sala, Druskat & Mount, 2006, p. 138). In organizations where teamwork has been implemented successfully, their operations are done with high speed and more efficiently. According to Aichouni (2005, p.10), man is a being that is not able to exist without the aid and assistance of fellow men. Therefore, teamwork in organizations is as crucial as the mutual interactions of man with others. The work environment should be a secure one in which the members of staff friendly to one another and they render support to one another whenever it is needed. For the team to be a success there has to be politeness and respect as the basic conditions. However, these elements of human relations do not characterize teamwork (Thamhain, 2008, para. 1). Teamwork thrives on communication, resolving conflicts resolution, and cooperation among staff members.

2.2 Basics of teamwork

According to Wilson, (2008) a team is a group of people carrying out work jointly. Success in the attainment of the desired work objective will only achieved if the right team is selected. In the course of carrying out individual duties duty, the team members of the group should have a united goal of succeeding first on an individual level and finally as a group. The success of the whole group will depend on what the individuals have been able to achieve. To have a good team the members should have qualities such as capability in relation to the task, intelligence, proper communication skills with a clear understanding of the problem to be solved and being willing to take with the others in getting the problem solved. The attainment of the overall objective should be at the team level and not on individual level. According to Levy (2005, p. 18), this is the right way to achieving the desired objectives. It is impossible to delink teamwork and the search for ideas in problem solving. In this regard, communication is very important where cooperation is required to seek solutions to problems. Most of the problems that the world has faced in its existence have been solve through teamwork and effective communication. These can be depicted in figure 1 below.

Ideas in the teamwork: every member in the team is important, as is a representation of part of the solution being sought. The ideas from the various members of the team should be gathered with the aim of attaining the desired goal. There are various ways in which the ideas of the members towards solving the problem can be gathered such as brainstorming sessions, where members state their ideas freely and they are noted down (Sala, Druskat & Mount, 2006, p. 154). 

Teamwork and conflict resolution: teamwork is an effective in seeking solutions to conflicts affecting the organization. The team members will have assorted views to the problem and will therefore have different ways of resolving it (Holton, Bates & Naquin, 2000, p. 253). Conflicts are many and some emerge in the pursuit of the goals the organization wants to attain. There can also be conflicts where members in a team are not able to agree on the goal that they are seeking to achieve. To avoid the conflicts that might hamper the attainment of the objectives of the overall objectives, there should be synchronization of the individuals, cooperation, and mutual adaptation, which are necessary for solving problems. In addition, the exams main objective is the resolution of problems and not the creation of other complications (Hesselbein & Shinseki, 2004, p. 89).

According to Leedy and Ormrod (2005, p. 145), conflicts regarding the given solution to a problem are good as they allow the team to generate other solutions that are better. The presence of conflicts within a team provides the opportunity for them to congregate and discuss the causes of the problem and how it could be resolved (Dess, & Taylor, 2004, p. 223).

The diagram below illustrates how teamwork can be used in problem solving in a group. The figure 2.1 below, clear shows the importance of communication in the work of any team tasked with any work. The circle of arrows that seems to be endless means the solution to one problem often leads to a new problem and so on.

Solving Problems Using Teamwork

Fig 2.1

Source: Rupar, B & Rupar, M (n.d), Importance of teamwork for non-profit organizations

 

 

In order to attain the optimal solution, the group should stop dwelling on the conflicts and seek the optimal solution to the problem.

Solving problems: this involves ideas that can aid the solution of a problem. The ideas provided by the team members contain the solution to the problem. Each of the suggested solutions should be evaluated against the problem to determine the best solution. Success of the team will only be attained if there is mutual-cooperation and effective communication among members of the team. Any adjustments needed in the solutions or appraises to be used to achieve the desired goals can be attained where there is communication and cooperation. According to Schroeder & Lombardo (2004, p. 171), successful teamwork will remain elusive in the absence of communication and cooperation. Either the team members can communicate verbally or using any other means. Teamwork can help the management of an organization establish the organizational goals with regard to particular aspects. ‘Teamwork’ (2007, p. 15) adds that another way to ensure effective teamwork is by motivating the team members. A successful team will lead to better quality work and improved organizational operations with more success at other levels of the organization (Linden, 2002, p. 31).

2.2.1 Developing teamwork

Many organizations have realized the value of teamwork and have adopted teamwork in their operations. According to Critchley, Edwards and Fallon (2007, p. 11), teamwork is employed by both revenue and not for profit organizations. Some organizations have failed to employ teamwork in their routine activities because of the fear and mistrust evident among new employees whenever new ways of operations are being introduced in the organization. There are five phases towards the development of teamwork as shown below.

A team is achieved through several phases as indicated in the table below. If a team goes through all the phases, it will achieve the effectiveness to execute its functions of the department and the ADP as a whole.

Team Development

Source: Rupar & Rupar, (n.d) Importance of teamwork for non-profit organizations

The initial phase is about the formation of a group by introducing the members who will be a part of it. The members who may be meeting for the first time get to know one other about as well as the problem that united them. According to Boaden and Leaviss (2000, p. 923), the initial stage sees many ideas being put forward. The ideas so projected are adjusted in the second phase. Phase two of the process involves the reaching of a consensus seeking the wish of the majority. The members of the team must recognize that they are after a common objective that will be for the benefit of the entire organization and not to the team itself or individual team members. The third phase is the most critical and demanding phase of the whole process. Here the team has to reach an optimal solution within a given period. King (2004, p. 2003) notes that the team members should be careful in their discussions regarding the optimal solution to avoid the loss of support from other members in the fourth also known as realization phase. In the realization phase, the support of all the members should be harnessed as they move into the fifth phase in which responsibilities are assumed. According to Flick, et al. (2004, 274), the working team should be maintained as a group that is out to get and attain the desired goals. Therefore, developing a successful is an on-going process as indicated in the strategic management department of the ADP.

According to Creswell (2007), teamwork is necessary for the success of any organization. The whole of strategic management department in the ADP can be energized by the use of effective teamwork, while the negative effects of teamwork can bring the department and entire organization to its knees. Teamwork in the department will lead to the satisfaction of the employees making them feel motivated to execute their various duties. The success of any organization is possible if the right team that can work effectively through cooperation and teamwork is selected. Michalisin, Karau, and Tangpong (2004, p. 1112) adds that knowing the right process of selecting the appropriate members of a team is crucial because it will not matter how hard the team works it does not comprise of the right people. Selecting the wrong team is a certain way to failing in its objective.

Effectiveness of a team

To determine the development of process of effective teams, O’Sullivan (2005) conducted individual interviews with police officers in the United States to identify their strategies for enhancing group cohesion and maintaining a positive team spirit to achieve their goals. The success of the team will be determined with the best efforts of individual members being put forward in the pursuit of the desired goals. The overall goal should be clear to all members of the team since it can be a very important indicator of performance (O’ Sullivan, 2005, p. 97).

Communication is very important in teamwork and its absence reduces motivation among members of the team in executing their respective duties (Deosaran, 2000). While working for the team’s objective either individually or as a group, the purpose of the work should be very clear. The strategies to be employed too should be clearly understood as different people and situations will need distinct management styles (Guy, 2000, p. 122). Focus should be made on individual skills and personalities and allocate duties that suit them best. People have certain preferences and may perform better in some cases specific areas and poorly when assigned others. This kind of allocation of duties based on personal preferences leads to employees feeling valued and appreciated. This is a motivation towards improved performance in their work (Trojanowicz, Kappler, Gaines & Bucqueroux, 1998, p. 156).

Similarly, Bateman and Wilson (2002, p. 123) suggest six essential factors in determining teamwork and how effective it can be. The team must have synergy in order to accomplish its tasks effectively since the entire team must have a common purpose. Performance objectives should be clearly communicated and established by the team. These need to be followed up and monitored on regularly (Bateman & Wilson 2002, p. 211).  The competencies of individual team members should be well enhanced by providing adequate training so there is a greater level of flexibility when using one’s skills and knowledge (McClelland S 2002, p. 8). Moreover, the resources available, from people to equipment, should be employed effectively to achieve the optimum level. Teams can be effective by being innovative and always looking for means of improving task accomplishment through improved work systems (Hartenian 2003, p. 26).

Meanwhile, Siebold (2007, p. 289), suggests in a study of military strategies, that social relationships among the team members are important for group cohesion and organizational bonding. The need of strong cohesion and effectiveness of the team effectiveness is the development of trust among team members and faith that they will accomplish the job. Where there exists strong sense of teamwork, there is likely to be better performance as well as the degree of retention, attitudes, and behavioral concerns within the military service. Siebold (2007, p. 291) believes that teamwork is an on-going process of social integration among team members, group heads, and the organizations that they give service to. This perspective presents the concept of group cohesion and team effectiveness in a larger context and allows important connections and processes to be clearly identified. 

Another study by Griffith (2006, p. 63) sought to find out about the readiness of soldiers in their company-size or battalion-size units. Surveys and personal interviews were used on 1,138 soldiers from 31 company-sized units. The findings of the study were that teamwork and cooperation are very important for teams to function as effectively as they are expected. Soldiers who showed care and concern about each other’s condition were more motivated in executing their duties and expressed concern regarding the conditions of their fellow soldiers; they were motivated to work and committed to remain associated with their fellow soldiers. The findings also showed the role of leadership behavior toward team members and their influence individual performance.

2.2.2 Components of good teamwork for organizational culture

2.2.2.1 Positive corporate culture

For an organization to be able to recruit long-term effective team members, it should have an open and invigorating positive corporate culture. The members of a team can thrive well in an environment where work involves creativity to overcome any challenges that the team may face. According to Rouse & Boff (2005, p. 216), destructive organizational climate that is characterized by high staff turnover, distrust among employees, negative attitudes. The presence of negative attitudes usually leads to the company’s inability to retain employees or those who remain products of destructive organizational culture. Though all the members of the group should have a positive corporate culture, it should flow from the top management of the department down to the small groups of individuals in the organization.  

The management of the strategic department in the ADP is responsible in applying teamwork as part of the strategic management in the department and in the organization in order to attain their goals and objectives. According to Creswell (2007, p. 207), management can develop good corporate culture in a number of ways such as ensuring that the team’s expectations are clear, providing the team members with the authority they need to execute their mandate required and supporting and backing up the decisions made by the team members.

2.2.2.2 Recognition

Its an important part of the success as the team members usually search for recognition. The department of strategic management should positively recognize the members of the various teams in the department. Positive recognition means recognizing outstanding performers in the team, continued performance, and improved performance in the strategic management department in the ADP.

2.2.2.3 Positive feedback

The results of a team in the strategic management department in the ADP are measured against the feedback received in the implementation of their findings. Feedback is crucial; as it is the only way, the team is able to weigh the results of its efforts. Where there is no feedback, the team will be confused and therefore fail to focus on its mandate properly make them miss their expected results as they produce so many disappointments. The team will grow depending on how frequent they get feedback on their performance. According to U.S. Army (2010, p. 52), the team should get feedback on a regular basis. In addition to the above, there is also the provision of opportunities for employees.

2.3 Strategic management

The use of strategic management came first in the 1970s. It means the strategic planning or strategic programs for an organization to move ahead with its development plans. As times evolved and the business environment changed, there was need for strategic management to change as well. In the 1990s, the strategic plan and strategic management of an organization were much different from what was available in previous years (Jennings, 2002, p. 259). Strategic management is the process by which an organization through its management drafts, implements and evaluates cross-functional decisions that enable the organization to achieve its long-term objectives (Scribner, 2010, p. 3). It entails the process of specifying the mission, defining its vision, identifying its objectives, and the developments of the various strategies that assist the organization attain its objectives. In addition to that, policies and plans are designed to achieve the identified firm objectives.

According to Levi (2007, p. 314), strategic planning preludes of strategic management and it follows that strategic planning can only be effective, when must be followed by deploying and implementing the plan. Later, the plan is evaluated to find out the progress and adjustments made as required. Strategic management is a system’s approach to identify and make the necessary changes while weighing organization’s performance with regard to the attainment of the desired goal. Strategic management is more than just developing the strategic plan. The deployment and the implementation of the strategic plan of an organization form a part of strategic management (Levy, 2007, 314). Deployment refers to the completion of the strategic plan and making the announcement to all members of the organization. The implementation of the strategic plan is about availing the necessary resources the plan requires and putting it to action as well as managing the actions. The monitoring and evaluation of the plan in the strategic management department in the ADP involves tracing down the implementation of the plan and assessing how well the department is responding to the plan being implemented. The information used in this process is then used to make updates to the plan. This is done carefully while avoiding deviations from the normal (Russell & Ryan, 2009, p. 40).

2.3.1 The five facets of strategic management

Five facets make up strategic management. These include goal setting, analysis, strategy implementation, and strategy monitoring. These facets are the basic elements of the strategic management and when they are applied, they are the distinction between strategic management and other approaches that are less comprehensive as operational management or long term planning (Dess & Taylor, 2004).

Goal setting: this element of strategic management will allow the department to define and articulate its vision. In executing the vision, the department will be able to identify what needs to be accomplished. The department should also define its objectives for the short term and in the long term, and relate the objectives to what is to be done in the strategic department. It this section the department also provides its mission statement summarizing its purpose and goals (D’Aveni, 1999, p. 129).

Analysis: this element is crucial to the whole process as it allows the department to gather and consider information relevant to the process that it fully comprehends. The analysis part allows the ADP look at the environment in which it operates against its internal strengths. The factors in these two environments will play a critical role in the achievement of its goals. Such analysis will help it to determine the right of tackling the challenges on the path towards its objectives (Hill & Jones, 2007, p. 278). The strategy will help the strategic management department raise the performance of its employees individually and the whole department as well.

Strategy formation: according to Ruiz and Bianey (2004, p. 15), the department will need to reflect on the strategy and come up with a priorities list. The priorities of the strategy should be in line with its objectives. There should be a review of the plans to ensure the right decisions are made at all times. The priority list should be made based on the urgency and magnitude of the plans. The results obtained will be key in coming up alternative strategies that will address important issues of the strategy (Hill & Jones, 2007, p. 275).

Strategy implementation: for the implementation of the strategy, the department should assemble all the resources needed for the purpose and apply them in the process of implementation. This should be followed by the implementation of the plan that will deliver the goals in the best way possible. Moreover, the necessary commitment should also be used as the strategic department taps into excess capacity or build new capacity and seek to achieve better and higher results as per the goals (Valle & Witt, 2001, p. 385).

  Strategy monitoring: this allows the strategic department to assess the progress achieved towards attaining the goals set. It is also important to assess changes in the environment necessitate that may make the strategy to be altered to remain relevant amidst the environmental changes. Plans and actions should be modified to adjust the strategy to the impacts of the changes in the environment. When monitoring is effective, the strategic department is able to react and anticipate. According to Pfaff and Huddeleston (2003, p. 40), monitoring provides feedback to management for the analysis, strategy design, and implementation they conducted.

2.3.2 Strategic planning and Strategic Management

According to Crichton (2005, p. 685), strategic planning and strategic management refers to a set of tools that management uses to make decisions about the attainment of their goals. They constitute a mindset of, an approach to look at the internal and external changes in an organization that can help the strategic department to achieve its goals and objectives. The use of planning and management tools strategically involves thinking essentially, mental framework and analytic tools. Strategic management requires the management have their minds strategically designed for success. Crichton (2005, p. 686) adds that strategic mentality has four main elements that include:

Strategic approach is focused on the future of the organization. It bears in mind any changes that occur in either the internal or the external environments. Using this approach enables managers to be focused on a specific period in future, thus have going concern. The strategic focus has also an external emphasis where factors that may affect the organization’s performance are taken into consideration. There are several components found in the external environment that strategic approach takes into account such a politics, technology, economics and social aspects. Strategic thinking by management considers that these components are important, as they will influence the making of business decisions. Politics for example determines the policies to be implemented, economics the organization’s level: of resources to be employed in projects while social factors can determine the benefactors of the products of the organization. Managers consider these external factors while making strategies to meet long term and short-term goals of the strategic department (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005).

2.4 Teamwork as a Strategy for management

According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill  (2007), the employees of the strategic department will determine how effective the strategies will be. The teamwork among the employees in the execution of their tasks will determine the success of the strategies formulated by the organization will depend on the teamwork exhibited by the employees while executing their various tasks in relation to the objectives of the strategic management department in the ADP (ADP, n.d). Boaden and Leaviss (2000, p. 925), notes that the functioning of employees as a team leads to the success of the organization. Teamwork gives employees morale, makes them motivated to work, and achieves the given strategies. Moreover, Rouse & Boff (2005, p. 538) adds that through teamwork, the employees’ are able to tackle the issues that stand in the way of accomplishing the goals of the organization. The labor force today is diverse and flexible making it usable in a number of activities. This is diversity and flexibility is of the employees is being exploited by big organizations. One way of exploiting this advantage is involving the employees in decision-making discussions together with the management.

Bacon and Blyton (2006) argue that the success of teamwork in any organization depends on the organizational culture that the management has created. The organizational culture of interpersonal communication and training allows the sharing of knowledge and experiences among the workers. This makes problem solving and the execution of tasks easier. In such a culture, teamwork is able to thrive unlike in conservative cultures where employees are not encouraged to share what they know or have experienced in the course of their work. Jenner, Foote, and Zhao (2010, p. 9), warn that the department will be required to make use of teamwork as a strategy that will help in achieving its objectives.

2.5 Teamwork and autonomy

There exists a relationship between teamwork and autonomy of employees in non-governmental and revenue organizations. According to Salas, Goodwin and Burke (2008, p. 215), employees who are involved in teamwork have increased autonomy in the execution of their mandates as they will be making decisions relating to their activities. Team autonomy is understood as the possibility of the group to participate in the decision-making process in relation to tasks, working methods and organization of working time. Individual team members can have autonomy within the team that contributes to the autonomy of the team as a whole as part of the decision making process in the department of strategic management department in the ADP. When working in a team the team members have the opportunity to learn new things from their colleagues and perform complex tasks (ADP, n.d). Team workers have a better chance of learning new things as opposed to those who work on their own.

2.6 Teamwork and job satisfaction

Teamwork is about workers working in a team and as a group towards the attainment of a common goal. This kind of working approach has some challenges as well as benefits that the employees experience in the course of their work. However, Grau-Gumbau, (202, p. 236) notes that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and teamwork. If teams work well, have a common goal, are autonomous in their decision-making, and have responsibility and support, teamwork becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. ‘Working in a team empowers people and helps them develop autonomy, which is a source of profound job satisfaction and reduces stress’ (Hayes, 2005, p. 172). Therefore, Working in a team contributes to job satisfaction. According to this model, two classes of factors influence job satisfaction. The first class of factors leading to job satisfaction corresponds to the employee’s need to further his or her qualifications and career and, by extension, to develop his or her personality (ADP, n.d).

The second category of factors that influence job satisfaction form the basis on which the first factors are formed and compromises working conditions in a broad sense while encompassing the wages of employees, the management styles employed and the organization. The initial class of factors is often denoted as motivators or satisfactory while the second class of factors is the dissatisfactory. Thus, they are often referred to as the factors serving to prevent dissatisfaction, but with little influence on positive attitudes to work. Satisfaction is important for team and employee performance. If teamwork increases employee’s job satisfaction, then the productivity of the employee will improve (Salas, Goodwin & Burke, 2008, p. 220).

2.7 Teamwork and performance

Teamwork is important in every person’s daily lives, though of particular importance if the relevance of the teamwork to businesses and organizations. Many activities of any organization are becoming complex daily due to advanced technology and it therefore calls for teamwork. Not all work employee teams produce good results. Teamwork helps employees to overcome the many obstacles of coordination, role ambiguity, personal conflicts, and free riders among many other problems in an organization. According to Pfaff and Huddleston (2003, p. 42), there is need for teamwork in all types of organizations including non-profit making organizations. Non-profit making organizations should form groups for teamwork. The teams should be taught how to improve their performance through improved skills. In addition, through teamwork, employees obtain the necessary skills for better individual performance. Chen et al., 2004, p. 33; Ellis et al., 2005, p. 643) argue that the skills of a team do not have to be innate. It is possible for team participants to learn the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for working adequately in a team (Fröbel & Marchington, 2005, p. 268).

There are enough reasons for adoption of teamwork in non-profit making organizations especially regarding performance. According to Gill and Johnson (2006, p. 91), organizations that have embraced teamwork have recorded increased performance in productivity at work, issues, and problem solving at work and stimulation of new growth in the organization. They also increased their commitment to the organization. Group work can increased the morale of employees in the strategic department and make work even harder while affecting the output of the organization positively. Many companies use the self-directed format of teamwork to perform better. In this format, the group leader is either assigned by the management or elected by members. The leader must be effective for performance and completion of the project at hand.

Despite the importance of teamwork in relation to performance, Crichton (2005, p. 690) admits that it is not easy to teach individuals on how to work in a team. This is because teaching individuals to work in a team goes beyond the limits of any traditionally based training as it involves the training of only the skills that can facilitate teamwork and the internal working of individuals (Ghufli, A 2009, p. 3). Teaching teamwork to individuals therefore involves innovative didactic techniques similar to techniques of experimental learning. For delivery of the required results in relation to performance of a team, there is need to specific skills necessary for working in a team (Walburg, 2006, p. 62). Where such skills are deficient, the employees should be trained on how they can perform better as a team and therefore enable the department meet its set strategic objectives. In particular, Bacon and Blyton (2006, p. 15) propose the teaching of the self-management team and the interpersonal team skills. These important skills enhance communication and interpersonal relationship in teams while enhancing teamwork and performance. The self-management team skills enable a team to manage its own activities and resources while working within the limits of the organization’s duties (Letts, Ryan & Grossman, 1999, p. 115).

2.8 Negative consequences of teamwork on performance

There are arguments that teamwork may have detrimental effects on workers by increasing work-related health problems and the risk of occupational hazards (Askenazy, 2001, p. 496; Brenner, Fairris and Ruser, 2004, p. 245). The pace of work in the department can be increased though job rotation and greater responsibility of employees for quality of the services offered. The rotation of employees o their jobs  and rapid organizational changes that are facilitated by production processes that are flexible can reduce the chances of workers to improve their safety through the routines at work and learning while at work. According to Grau-Gumbau (2002, p. 239), the introduction of new forms of work organization, including teamwork, led to an increased workload and an increase in time pressure caused by shortage of employees and other problems that are technical. The study further note that the introduction of teamwork in organizations is followed by intensified work.

The high intensity of work can cause problems to the strategic department if the enlarged job is not accompanied by a great possibility for control over one’s work. There is a conflict between practices in organizations that lead to high performance among employees, and work life balance policies. Working as a team in groups plays a larger role in high work demands. People who work in teams think about their work in their free time often than those not working in groups.

2.9 Summary of Literature review

Teamwork is important in every sector in an organization. Teamwork can enable all types of organizations (both profit and non-profit making) to increase their performance (Valle & Witt, 2001, p. 387). Through teamwork, employees of non-profit making organizations and the strategic management department can gain morale to work hard and better yielding better performance for the team, the department, and the organization (Walburg, 2006, p. 75). Teamwork can be adopted as a strategy in non-profit making organization to increase the performance of the individual employees and the organization. Effective teamwork should be cultivated in such strategic department through better organizational culture that encourages cooperation and participation. In non-profit organizations without teamwork, employees can be trained to obtain the necessary interpersonal skills for teamwork. It is important that all organizations encourage teamwork because employees cannot work alone in the environment that is full of obstacles and issues. The next chapter will discuss the methodology undertaken by this study (Salas, Goodwin & Burke, 2008, p. 205).

 

 

Chapter 3 - Methodology

3.1 Approach

This chapter will review the main layers of the Onion research process Developed by Saunders, et al. (2003, p. 206). Onion method is a research that was created for the integration of terminological knowledge from repositories with heterogeneous conceptualizations. This methodology is founded on a philosophically account to a semantic theory. The method can be depicted in the figure 6 below. This approach depicts the philosophies, approaches, strategies, methods, and time horizons involved in the study. The research process onion is illustrated in Figure 6.

Figure 6: The research process onion (Source: Saunders, et al., 2003)

The methods of collecting data are very important to Onion approach and it is the reason that they are at the center of the above diagram. The time horizons mark the period in which data is collected. It can be either cross sectional or longitudinal. In cross sectional studies, data is collected once at a given period while in longitudinal time horizon, the data is collected continuously over different periods.

3.2 Research Approach and Philosophy

          A research philosophy helps the researcher to be in a position to select the most appropriate method for a study. Each facet of the research approach is described as one layer of the “onion” (Saunders, et al. 2003, p. 209). The philosophy layer represents the way in which a researcher considers the development of further knowledge. The instant study will utilize and interpret that philosophy. The interpretive layer views the social world of management and business processes as too complex to be reduced to a collection of hard and fast “laws,” as in physics. Rather, the study of management systems and strategies is wholly dependent on the subjective nature of each organization being studied.

          An inductive approach will be used in the analysis, thus will allow for the development of data collecting methodologies and theories based on the study. The inductive approach places its emphasis on achieving an understanding of the meanings that people attach to certain phenomena, intimate familiarity with the research context, and a flexible study structure that will allow a shift in emphasis if so warranted by the study’s progress. Other bases of this emphasis include an understanding that the researcher is a component of the research process, collection of data using qualitative methods, and a lessening of generalizations (Saunders, 2003, p. 212).

          The research strategy layer of the ONION methodology illustrates the approach used to answer a study’s research questions. Case study analysis is the research strategy adopted for this study. A case study is generally described as an empirical investigation of a discrete, contextual phenomenon, utilizing evidence from several sources (See Robson, 2002). In an instant study, the sources from which the evidence will derive are interviews and analysis of relevant documents. The applicable time horizon in the instant study is a cross-sectional on. A cross-sectional time horizon permits the examination of a discrete phenomenon along a single timeline.

This research addresses the implementation of teamwork on employees in the strategic management department in the ADP and its impact on employee performance. In order for the rich objectives of the study to be achieved, the researcher had to gain a deep understanding of the current situation in order to underpin the required recommendations for its use and implementation in other departments in the ADP. A positivist philosophy was deemed relevant and, therefore, applied in this research. The research sought to fulfill the hypothesis that teamwork affects the strategic management department in the ADP positively, thus leading to higher employee performance. Just as described above then, this philosophy is associated with the inductive approach in this study.

3.3 Research methods

3.4 Research Strategy

This study would get to the deeper understanding and knowledge of the impacts of teamwork on employee performance in the strategic management department of the ADP. The study also involves investigating the teamwork as a strategy for human resource management in non-profit making organizations.

3.4.1 Case Study

A case study is a strategy for the research that involves the researcher collecting and making an analysis of data from a given case. In this study, the researcher will use the strategic management department in the ADP as the case study for teamwork and employee performance. A case study is relevant as well as useful to the study in all situations that will give rise to different but relevant interpretations to the topic of study. This study only analyzes one non-profit making strategic department (ADP) as a case for study although there can be many cases. According to Yin (2003, p. 54), a case is a study that is empirical in nature and seeks to investigate the unclear phenomenon. This study will employ an embedded single case study that gives an attention to a single case study for analysis. There could be more chances of comparing several cases but due to time constraints, the researcher will study the impact of teamwork on employee performance in strategic management strategy in the ADP (Jankowicz, 2005, p. 234).

3.4.2 Surveys

A survey is another strategy that the research uses. A survey is good for this study because it can be administered from any location and large sample are feasible with many questions being asked about the impact of teamwork on employee performance in Strategic department in the ADP. In addition to that, the use of surveys makes the researcher employ standard questions that result in uniform definitions and responses from the respondents.

3.4.3 Time Horizons

Events occur in these different periods. It is important that the researcher consider the timeframes while conducting the research. There are two main time horizons: the cross-sectional time horizon and the longitudinal time horizon. The cross-sectional time horizon offers a snapshot or data for a given moment in time while the longitudinal time horizon takes a, long-term view of a given research phenomenon. For instance, a study of the behavior of the employees of an organization at a given time is cross sectional data while study of the employee behavior after every three years is a longitudinal time horizon. It also has the ability to change over time. The cross sectional time horizon clearly aligns with the choice of a case study to examine the impact of teamwork on employee performance in the strategic management department in the ADP.

3.5 Data collection methods

It is important for the researcher to choose relevant data collection methods for the study because they will help him in successful completion of the study. The researcher will use primary data for this study. Primary data collection methods are the data collection methods that enable the researcher to collect fast hand data for the first time. The method that is selected by the researcher will determine the data collection process. The various methods of collecting data will vary depending on the approach that the study is using. This study will employ semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to collects data (Mcneill & Chapman, 2005, p. 175).

3.5.1 Semi-structured interviews

Semi-structured interviews are a common method used to collect data in both quantitative and qualitative surveys. According to Bryman & Bell (2007, p. 93), the interviews used in quantitative researches are usually more structured than those used in qualitative surveys are. An interview is useful in obtaining information from one person about particular situations, problems, or topics. The interview can be structured or semi-structured. Standards questions are common in semi-structured interviews. According to Yin (2003, p. 114), interviews can be conducted in various forms such as face to face, over the phone or through the internet. The semi-structured interview is designed to elicit specific responses to specific questions.  Responses to a semi-interview will normally be easier to quantify and interpret since uniform questions tend to yield a narrower range of responses. The semi-structured interview uses open-ended questions to explore broad issues in a non-directive, non-threatening manner. Semi structured interviews were used in this study to collect data.

3.5.2 Secondary methods of collecting Data

According to Quinn (2002, p. 173), secondary data collection methods refer to the ability of the researcher to carry out an analysis of using already used data. This research will use both primary and secondary methods to collect data for the study. The primary sources of data will come from the questionnaires and interviews conducted by the researcher. The secondary sources will include review of both published and unpublished literature that is related to the suitability of teamwork for employee performance in non-profit making organizations. Primary sources will include the review of the findings from the interviews and responses from respondents who are from the department of strategic management department in the ADP (Jain, 2006, p. 342).

3.5.3 Questionnaires

Questionnaires are data collection methods that are used to gather specific information from large populations about what they think and feel. Surveys and questionnaires can be either paper-based or electronic. According to Miles & Huberman (1994, p. 79), Questionnaires provide a convenient way of collecting data from a known population. Questionnaires usually have closed ended questions, open-ended questions and likert scale questions. They are easy to analyze and most statistical software can easily process them. When questionnaires are compared to face-to-face interviews, they are cost effective because the cost that the researcher uses to travel and meet the respondents is saved (Waliman, 2005, p. 175). 

The questions that are commonly used in surveys and questionnaires are usually open ended, closed-ended questions and likert scales. Open ended questions do not always give answers that a respondent can choose from but allow participants to answer freely. On the other hand, closed ended questions provide answers for the respondent to choose from. Likert scale questions requests respondents to respond to the question along a given continuum from the given responses such as strongly agree, agree, averagely agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Each of the response is given a number ranging from 1-5. The questionnaire and questions for interviews that were used in this study, contained question that had the above three structures. The development of the questionnaire considered questions that will give rise to information that is relevant to the importance of teamwork on employee performance in non-profit making organizations. The researcher to find out the suitability of the questionnaire regarding the suitability, the language, tone and the readability conducted pilot studies.

This part analyzes the responses from the questions that were used in the questionnaires and interviews. These two methods were used by the researcher to gather data about the suitability of teamwork as a strategic human resource management tool that can be employed in the strategic human resource management department in the ADP. Similar questions were used to collect data from both the managers and the junior officers since similar information concerning the application of teamwork in the strategic management department. These were used to improve employee performance and the performance of the strategic management department as a nonprofit making organization. The strategic management department in the ADP has six sections with a total population of about 500 employees. Four managers at the top position of the strategic management department lead the employees in the department. By use of stratified sampling, the researcher selected thirty percent of the employees in the department including the four managers leading the department. The researcher chose 30% of the employees since he thought it’s the convenient number for the study.

The four managers are influential in the strategic management department and are mostly involved in decision making in the strategic department in the ADP (Dimmock, 1998). However, a lot of care was taken to ensure that there was proper representation to avoid bias. The researcher interviewed the four managers and ten more employees while the rest of the respondents were sent questionnaires to fill through the research assistants in the field. The researcher did the distribution of the questionnaires to his representatives on the ground to ensure that the research is completed in time (Heart, et al., 2001, p. 130). Therefore, only 14 interviews were conducted with the rest of the 122 respondents filling the questionnaires and returning them to the respondent. The interviews were conducted on face to face in the respective work places of the respondents in the strategic management department in ADP.

3.6 Population and sample Selection

The population of the study will comprise of the various people in charge of strategic management department in the ADP. It is important that all members of the study population be studied to ascertain the findings of the study. However, due to constraints experienced by the researcher during the study, he could only manage to study 30% of the study population. Mcneill, and Chapman, (2005, p. 77) argue that the process of sampling involves selecting elements from the study population so that by carrying a study of the sample and having an understanding of the properties of the characteristics of the subjects of the sample, it will be possible to generalize the properties to specific elements in the population.

Sampling techniques that can be used in any research are many and the researcher can choose depending on the goals and objectives of the study. The use of these convenient sampling techniques allows a researcher to choose the sample population from a subset of a large in order to cut on cost. Concerning this study, stratified random sampling was chosen because it is a probability method that gives every member of the population equal chance of being selected as a sample.

3.7 Reliability and validity

The performance of any research tool is usually measured in terms of reliability, validity and sensitivity as well as specificity. These concepts will also apply in this study for the researcher to ascertain the reliability of the study. According to Waliman (2005), reliability is the ability by which a study is able to produce results that are consistent and stable over a given period of time and given similar circumstances (Waliman, 2005). Various types of validities exist that include internal validity and external validity. Internal validity relates to the correlation between items when measured on a scale. Whenever a study provides the same results after the application of two different measures, the outcome is said to be equivalent.

Validity is the extent to which a given instrument is designed to measure the relationship between variables. The validity of a study can vary in different samples used. In one situation, a study can be valid while in other scenarios, it may not. The validity of a study is measured by what the study claims to and the availability of logical errors in the conclusions drawn from the study. According to Crotty (2003, P. 104), internal validity is the extent to which it is possible to make independent reference from the findings of a study especially when the independent variable influences the dependent variable. On the other hand, external validity is the general application of the findings of a study to other settings. Therefore, the two types of validities differ.

The measurement of the theoretical construct of a study is measured using construct validity while convergent validity for this study made comparison between the scores that are obtained from different instruments that are used in the study. Unlike convergent validity, divergent validity compares the instruments used in the study that measure opposite concepts. Given the above validity and reliability, the study is valid ad reliable for use by any person or strategic department (Waliman, 2005, p. 141).

Chapter 4 - Data Analysis

4.1 Questionnaires

Out of the 136 questionnaires that were distributed to the respondents, only 122 were returned to the researcher. When added to the 14 interviews conducted by the researcher, it sums up to 132 responses, which represent 88% of the total sample under the study. The questionnaires that were used had both open-ended questions and likert scale questions. All questions were analyzed except those questions that were answered poorly or wrongly. All responses from all types of questions will be analyzed beginning with responses from likert scale questions. A five-likert scale was used to rate the eight likert-scale questions.

The table below shows the result of the data collected from the respondents using semi-structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The acronyms SA, A, Ave, D and SD stand for strongly agree Agree, Average, and Disagree and strongly disagree. In the interviewees were officers XXXXXXXXXXXXX, XXXXXXXXXXXX, XXXXXXXXXXXX and XXXXXXXXXX.

Statement

Perception

SA

A

Ave

D

SD

1

Do you agree that a high level of teamwork exists in your organization?

43

28

23

27

  11

2

Do you agree that there is an emphasis on cooperation among your colleagues in the Department while on duty?

50

20

25

22

15

3

To encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. To what extent do you agree that you are able to directly communicate with your supervisor in case of difficulty or any other issue regarding the organization?

26

36

36

18

16

4

Do you agree that sufficient resources have been committed to the strategic management department in relation to the development and encouragement of teamwork in the ADP?

27

21

23

32

24

5

 

Do you believe that the formulation of a teamwork strategy and methods of Strategic Management play a large role in relation to employee performance?

45

37

24

17

9

6

Do you agree that teamwork has a positive impact on employee performance?

41

48

20

16

  7

7

Overall, are you satisfied with the level of teamwork and cooperation within the ADP?

22

24

46

28

12

8

Would you recommend teamwork stats as a strategic management strategy for a non-profit organization in another industry?

41

48

20

15

  8

 

The outcome of the above data is that the strategic management department is committed to implementing teamwork in order to improve its performance and the performance of the officers in the department. Most of the respondents positively acknowledged the impact of teamwork on their performance while the officers who were interviewed agreed that teamwork affects the performance of the department positively.

4.2 Hypothesis testing

This research was conducted on the basis that the adoption of teamwork in the strategic management department of the ADP will affect positively the performance of the employees in the department and the ADP as a nonprofit making organization. This hypothesis can be tested using the response to the questions asked in the questionnaire and interviews conducted by the researcher.

The table below shows the percentage of respondents who respondents to a given question in the given continuum of the likert scale. The means of the values for each response was obtained from the rating that corresponded to that of the likert scale. The mean weights (were ranging from 1-5) were multiplied to give rise to percentages. The weighted averages were used to test the study hypothesis that the adoption of teamwork in the department of strategic human resource management in the ADP would transform the performance of the department positively. This is illustrated below.

The averages were computed as below:

The average = sum of all percentages for Agree, Strongly Agree and Average /132 (total respondents) (Kaplan, 2004, pp. 4-20)

Statement

Perception

 

SA

A

Ave

D

SD

Average

1

Do you agree that a high level of teamwork exists in your organization?

34%

20%

16%

19%

11%

2.9

2

Do you agree that there is an emphasis of cooperation among your colleagues in the Department while on duty?

38%

13%

16%

15%

18%

2.8

3

To encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. To what extent do you agree that you are able to directly communicate with your supervisor in case of difficulty or any other issue in the organization?

19%

28%

14%

12%

27%

3.0

4

Do you agree that sufficient resources have been committed to the development and encouragement of teamwork in the ADP?

18%

13%

14%

24%

31%

2.9

5

Do you believe that the formulation of teamwork strategy and methods of Strategic Management play a large role in relation to employee performance?

33%

27%

17%

11%

12%

3.1

6

Do you agree that  teamwork has a positive impact on employee performance

30%

35%

15%

12%

  8%

3.0

7

Overall, are you satisfied with the level of teamwork and cooperation within the ADP?

15%

17%

34%

19%

15%

2.8

8

Would you recommend teamwork as a Strategic Management strategy for a non-profit organization in another industry?

30%

35%

15%

11%

  9%

2.0

4.3 Data analysis

This section analyses the data collected from the respondents of the using both questionnaire and interviews. The analysis is done thematically.

4.3.1 Good employee relations

This question requested respondents to indicate whether there are good employee relations in strategic management department with full mutual respect and cooperation among employees and managers. Many respondents indicated that there were good employee relations in the organization. The employee relationship enjoyed was because of better communication and sharing in the department. This good relationship among employees has encouraged sharing and consultation, while increasing the learning environment in the department. The end result if teamwork. The few respondents who argued that the employee relations were not goods was because the sectors they worked did not involve much consultations and therefore less teamwork. Moreover, officer XXXXXXXXXX noted that teamwork increases the pace of work leading to higher workload with less autonomy at work. Thus, the discussion on how work is to be performed is limited reducing the employee relations.

4.3.2 Teamwork and employee autonomy

This part of the study concerns the incidence of teamwork on employee autonomy. The questions inquired whether teamwork increases the autonomy of employees in decision making concerning their work. According to De Vita and Fleming (2001, p. 207), team autonomy is the possibility of a team to participate in the decision-making process in relation to their work, methods of work, work time organization (Schedules) and assessment of work done quality. However, this study focused on the autonomy of the individual rather than that of the team. Various types of teamwork generally differentiate according to the autonomy of individual members within the team and the autonomy of the team as a whole, including its participation in the decision-making process within the strategic department in the ADP’s organizational structure (Dackert, Lööv & Mårtensson, 2004, p. 312).

Lean production emphasizes on the advantages of running production with the lowest possible level of inventories, very low defects and limited vertical integration. The respondents indicated that the teams could be homogenously composed, as different jobs do not require extensive formal training and employees can be exchanged relatively easily. Teams can also be organized in relation to socio-technical principles such as an autonomous group. A socio-technical team is a group of employees with 4-20 persons, responsible for a complete part of the production process and entitled to take certain decisions autonomously (Gorelick, Milton & April, 2004, p. 59). The respondents pointed out that they decided the roles and responsibilities to suit the task and individual needs.

Officer XXXXXXXX noted that employees in the strategic management department of the ADP are able to choose their tasks depending on the team they are placed. The different teams perform different functions and it is the reason as to the ability to choose tasks depending in the team. Therefore, the use of teamwork increases autonomy in the employee decisions concerning the work. Though the impact of teamwork on autonomy is positive, Flin and Maran (2004, p. 83) argues that the autonomy of the team or work group may conflict with the autonomy of the individual worker. The control of quality, planning, and the delegation of responsibilities does not automatically increase the autonomy of employees. The organization of a team can lead to increased workload while intensifying the work without the control of employees over their work (Stanton, 2005, p. 415).

4.3.3 Impact of teamwork on the learning environment

According to Pedler et al (1989), a learning organization is an organization that facilitates and promotes the education of all its members and systematically transforms itself. It has always been assumed that teamwork creates an environment for shared responsibility, knowledge, and both continuous professional and personal development of employees. The learning environment aided by teamwork was measured by the question, Over the past 12 months, have you undergone training paid for or provided by your employer to improve your skills or not? Does your main paid job involve, or not, learning new things?

Teamwork helps employees to learn new things and skills. The analysis of data from the respondents confirmed that working in a team is associated with an environment typified by the possibility to learn new things and perform complex tasks as indicated in the figure 4.1 below.

Fig. 4.1

Fig 4.1 Source: Rupar & Rupar (n.d): Importance of teamwork for non-profit organizations

Basing on the above figure, the employees who work in a team are more likely to learn new things than those working as individuals on their own. This was confirmed at the level of both the managers of the ADP and the employees in the Strategic management department in the ADP. The above figure also shows that the management is 13% points more likely to learn new things at work than those not working in teams. Similarly, in the employees, the difference between team workers learning new things and non-team workers learning new things reaches 15 percentage points.

4.3.4 Teamwork and job satisfaction

This section seeks to clarify the relationship between teamwork and job satisfaction as found out from the study. It examines whether workers are satisfied with a team-based way of working, the association between overall job satisfaction and teamwork, and whether teamwork increases overall job satisfaction. As noted in the literature review, teamwork theorists have a belief that working together as a team with a common goal, autonomy in their decision-making and responsibility and support makes teamwork becomes a valuable experience for the workers involved. The hypothesis tested is that working in a team increases job satisfaction. The question asked to test this hypothesis is that On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within the ADP?

Two factors that can make employees to be satisfied with the job they perform are the satisfactory and the dissatisfactory factors. All these terms (satisfaction and dissatisfaction) are described in the literature review. The figure below shows the satisfaction of work and the working conditions.

Fig. 4.2

34% of the respondents pointed out that they were satisfied with their jobs with the dissatisfied group forming 49% of the study outcome. The satisfied respondents pointed out that it is through teamwork that they were able to get motivated on performing of their duties. In addition, they indicated that teamwork helps them learn new skills pertaining to their jobs as well as being able to consult when facing difficulties in performing their tasks. The acquisition of new knowledge and skills has made work not only easier but also enjoyable. Contrary, those who indicated that they were not satisfied by their work were mainly employees of the department who worked as individuals and not in any team. They usually worked on their own with no or with little consultation. This makes their work harder because it is not easy to consult or even talk to their managers for help due to bureaucracy (Scroggs, 2000, p. 205).

The satisfaction measured in this study was in terms of the work itself, the relations between employees and their managers, the salaries and promotions options. Many employees pointed out that the channels to promotions are high if the work of employees is satisfactory. The salary is in accordance with the job group of the employee while there are bonuses and appreciations for exemplary work done by an employee.

4.3.5 Negative consequences of teamwork

This section discusses the findings on the challenges of teamwork as experienced by employees in the department of strategic management in the ADP. Teamwork increases increase the pace at which employees are to work. The consequence is that the workload on employees is increased. Other problems are higher demands on performance and corresponding extended responsibilities and autonomy in teams. The increased demand on teams does not allow the team participants to have a scope of control and decision making on how work should be done in order to meet the high demands. The outcome of this is increased stress and work related pressure (Cullingworth, 2001, p. 164; Martocchio & Frink, 1994, p. 219).

These findings are in accordance with the findings in a case study conducted in Austria in 1994 in which new forms of organization was introduced. The findings from the case study were that the introduction of new forms of work organization, including teamwork, could lead to an increased workload and an increase in time pressure caused by shortage of employees and other technical problems (f). Despite the challenges pointed out by the respondents, mainly employees, the management maintained that the distribution of work tasks between members of a team does not contribute to the subjective feeling that there is insufficient time to do the work, nor does it help to improve this situation (Rupar & Rupar, n.d). This work distribution is responsible for the 11% of the respondents in the figure below in this study.

Fig. 4.3

4.3.6 Teamwork and organizational environment

It is not easy for teamwork to exist alone. It must be accompanied by other values and culture of the organization. The encouragement of teamwork in an organization requires adequate communication. In this regard, the study sought to find out the level of communication in Strategic department in the ADP. Respondent XXXXXXXX indicated that while strategic management department encourages dialogue, there are some sectors that communication is not common. In such sectors, the level of teamwork is minimal as compared to other areas in the department. Consequently, the sectors whose employees do work as a team do not have improved employee performance. This can be shown in the figure below where 34% respondents pointed out that they were not satisfied with the level of communication in the department since their sectors were not working as a team. This is a small margin as compared to the 66% of respondents, who indicated that they were satisfied with the level of communication and teamwork in the department.

Fig. 4.4

The strategic management department has a wornderful culture that encourrges teamwork. The managers pointed out that teamwork is encourages through appreciations, promotions, training programs and jpob rotation.

4.3.7 Teamwork and performance

This section sought to find out the impact of teamwork on employee performance hence the performance of employees. The performance of employees is measured in terms of the work done and completed by an employee satisfactorily. In addition, the performance of non-profit organizations is measured in financial performance of the organizations and effective service delivery to the public. The ADP is a non-profit organization that provides services to the community. The performance of employees in the strategic management department is measured by the effective service delivery both top the public ad to fellow employees in the entire organization.  

Fig. 4.5

Respondents noted that the teamwork is effective on their performance. Officer XXXXXXXXXXXX confirmed the responses of employees by noting that teamwork encourages employees to work together as a team. The discouraged employees are encouraged by their colleagues while consultation and learning in teams enables those who do not know how to perform group tasks perfect on their skills. In addition, conflicts are resolved without many problems. The result is improved employees performance in terms of service delivery to the public and to the whole the ADP organization. The managers of the strategic management department in the strategic department pointed out that the improvement in the performance of employees in the department significantly affected the delivery of services of the organization to the public (Anheier, 2000, p. 17). Since the department realized that teamwork improves the employee performance, its management has tried to influence other departments in the ADP to adopt teamwork in order to improve service delivery. This influence has significantly improved the services delivery of the ADP as noted by the managers.

The figure above indicates that only 20% of the respondents indicated that their performance had not improved due to teamwork. It should however be known that the respondents were working in sub-sectors if the department in which employees work individually and they therefore did not realize the importance of teamwork.

4.3.8 Teamwork and strategic management

The study analyzed the importance of teamwork as a strategic management strategy in the relevant department, in the ADP, on employee performance. Strategic management department is charged with making strategic decisions regarding the performance of the ADP as a non-profit making organization. The department makes strategic decisions for the organization. The study sought to find out the importance of teamwork as one of the strategies to be employed by the department by asking the overall satisfaction with teamwork and whether other departments in the organization and other non-profit organizations should use it.

The respondents were quick to acknowledge the importance of teamwork to the service delivery of the strategic management department and the ADP. Only 20% o the respondents did not acknowledge the importance of teamwork as a strategy to be adopted in the department and organization in order to improve employee performance. They attributed their refusal to the challenges that come with teamwork like increased work, work related stress and reduced autonomy. Moreover, most of the most of those respondents who refused were form sectors in the departments where teamwork was not practiced. The rest of the respondents indicated the importance of teamwork to their performance in terms of service delivery, the department, and the organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5 - Conclusion

5.1 Overview

This study has reviewed the literature on the importance of teamwork as an important strategy to be employed in the strategic management department in the ADP. Teamwork involves grouping employees and assigning them specific tasks. The effect is improved quality of output, though there are some few negative consequences such as increased work pace, workload, and pressure to meet deadlines. However, the major objective of improving employee performance is already met. This chapter provides a conclusion of the findings of the study and the conclusion.

5.2 Conclusion of the study based on objectives

5.2.1 Objective 1: Team Development through support and guidance from the management

Teamwork, as an important instrument of new forms of work organization, is essentially a specific organizational measure that may display many different features in all organizations including non-profit organizations. The incidence of teamwork as recorded by the subjective reporting of employees and managers in strategic management department in the ADP can be predicted. One factor indicating the incidence of teamwork is the historical context of the introduction of new forms of work organization. The organization of teamwork is particularly characteristic for the service sector especially in non-profit making organizations that provide services to the public such as the ADP. Teamwork is also dominant in many large organizations with many employees (Thamhain, 2008, para. 1).

According to most experts, teamwork should contribute to a better quality of working life for employees, as well as improving not only their productivity, but also the productivity if the organization. Employee autonomy is considered factor to deliver quality work. However, the results of this study identify decisive findings in this regard. Data analysis did reveal a clear-cut positive correlation between the presence of teamwork and increased autonomy. The responses from the respondents of the study indicated that the employees in the strategic management who were working in teams were able to choose their own working methods to accomplish the tasks assigned. It is clear that the level of teamwork in the department directly influences the degree of employee autonomy. It could be presumed that team workers will be more autonomous due to their high concentration on professions like accountants, senior officials and managers. The analysis of data shows that employees in most subsectors in the strategic department display greater autonomy though there are some employees still in the department that do not show any autonomy since there is no teamwork.

5.2.2 Objective 2: Are teams in the strategic management department effective due to the implementation of teamwork?

An examination of the data reveals that, in the case of the opportunity for choosing work methods and pace of work, team workers in the strategic department of the ADP have a significantly higher autonomy than employees choose in the same department not working as a team. The possibility of learning new things in one’s job also improves the quality of working life and therefore the quality of output. In this case, it can be stated categorically that teamwork contributes to employees’ personal and professional growth. In the Strategic department in the ADP under study, team workers have a greater chance of learning new things and taking part in training paid for by the employer than employees not working in teams have. Teamwork is thus clearly positive in this respect and contributes to the learning environment in an organization. The learning received by employees in turn contributes the quality of work done and the employee performance.

Satisfaction with working conditions is another indicator of the quality of working life. Team workers display greater satisfaction than employees not working in teams do in the strategic department in the ADP. Employees not working in teams are not satisfied. Besides positive impacts on the individual’s working life, such as a more developed learning environment, teamwork also has positive aspects. The need to boost productivity and performance, which is usually the primary objective of any organization when introducing new forms of work organization, often demands a higher pace of work and a work intensity that is greater. Working in a team generally means a higher pace of work and working to tight deadlines in the Strategic department. Most respondents argued that increased work intensity and work pressure have a negative impact on employees’ health and private social life. In conclusion, the findings from the study point out that teamwork can take the form of improved employee performance and organizational performance since quality products are manufactured.

5.2.3 Objective 3: what are the benefits of teamwork and the challenges of teamwork to a team?

The increased pace of work, work increased autonomy teamwork affects the quality of output for individual employees positively. The employees will deliver services effectively to the public and the ADP organization. Increased employee quality also improves the performance of the strategic department and the ADP organization. The strategic department acts as a good practice for teamwork with greater autonomy for employees, better access to training and learning new things concerning the work (Sewell, 2005, p. 212). In addition, employees in the strategic department in the ADP were more satisfied with their work as they worked as a team as well as working conditions. These factors also contribute to improved employee efficiency in non-profit making organization like the ADP and specifically to the strategic department in the organization. Despite the positive impacts of teamwork on employees, many respondents indicated that teamwork affected their social and private life negatively as well as their health. This is because of increased pace of work and workload that comes with stress to meet deadlines in the delivery of services. However, the management emphasizes that teamwork is effective in improving the performance of employees and should be adopted in other departments of the ADP, despite the negative effects on employees as pointed above.

5.2.4 Objective 4: Is there a significant relationship between teamwork and performance?

The current study shows a very strong relationship between teamwork and performance.

The results of the study will be analyzed against those found in the literature in the paragraphs that follow:

The results of the current research, which demonstrate the relation of teamwork and performance, support the findings in other industries. Communication in the present study was also found to positively and significantly correlate with desired performance outcomes. Since police officers are often shuffled into different teams, it is vital that communication processes remain consistent. At the same time, skills conducive to teamwork usually depend on the individual, which makes it necessary for professionals, regardless of industry affiliation, to hone their skills in order to enhance their teamwork. Moreover, the use of communication skills, decision –making, and critical thinking were demonstrated in Melanie et al (2009) research which found that communication, decision-making, and critical thinking do influence teamwork, and critical thinking impacted performance. These results are consistent with those found in this study among police officers, although communication skills and decision- making were the only practices considered; critical thinking was not included among the best practices of teamwork researched in the present study.

The context within which performance is defined is actually the general handling of programs or projects assigned to the Strategic Management Team. Through this process, Jenner, Foote & Zhao, 2010, p. 8) showed how individuals enhance their overall performance by learning and acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills, thus contributing to both individual development and team performance. Sharing of workload and constant member social interaction as members handle their tasks have been demonstrated by Kirkman et al (2004) and Guzzo and Shea (1992) to improve both performance and effectiveness.

Having acknowledged the marked contribution of teamwork to desired organizational outcomes, the Abu Dhabi Police Department must exercise the means to ensure that such (add noun) is fostered within their institution. Politics is a given in organizations It was discovered, however, that placing an emphasis on teamwork heightens satisfaction among employees, regardless of the prominence of politics in an organization . In short, teamwork becomes even more important due to its ability to counteract the less desirable side effects of organizational politics (Valle and Witt 2001, p. 388).

5.3 Limitations of the study

One apparent limitation of the present study is that it did not systematically assess the barriers to the teamwork transpiring within the SMT of the Abu Dhabi Police Force. This being the case, the obstacles to teamwork are discussed based on the current levels of teamwork practices and performance of SMT and they occur for the worse of the strategic management department.

One such obstacle has to do with coordination, which has been pointed out in the study by Hall (2005), who focused on the difficulties of maintaining teamwork, and discovered that cultural differences are among the biggest obstacles to positive collaboration (Hall, 2005). They expressed the view that professionals have their own distinct values and approaches. These values, problem-solving approaches, patient handling and conduct at times hinder professionals from collaborating with others, and demographic factors like age and gender help very little to solve this issue due to other social factors such as generation gap in the case of age. Thus, sometimes it is necessary to put aside one’s professional culture in order to improve health services by simply collaborating with other health professions. Given the too slight an agreement given to both coordination and collaboration teamwork practices, collaboration is not a major barrier to teamwork; however, that does not mean that teamwork cannot be enhanced further. Any focus on communication and coordination must be well balanced by the idea that significant, positive correlations between the overall effectiveness of teamwork and performance were not found for either coordination or communication. However, that relationship was affirmed for the aspects of decision- making, leadership, communication skills, and interpersonal skills. Team members must be chosen in such a manner that their skills work well together. It would also foster better/more teamwork for members to have the opportunity to learn teambuilding skills. In the case of the SMT, there seems to be very little difficulty in exercising the various facets of positive teamwork except for the cluster of adaptability.

Clements et al (2005) further cited ways to enhance teamwork, citing the need to make time for making teamwork possible and adjust to the basic idea of collaboration. That the current systems generally do not reward collaborative practice, whether financially or by recognition, and that is another problem. The Police Department thus must ensure that teamwork practices are promoted and make time for employees to enact activities that encourage collaboration within and among all the teams. These results are consistent with those found in the present study, but only for the outcome of overall performance. Job satisfaction and personal learning have yet to be assessed within the specific context of the Abu Dhabi Police Force’s SMT. Besides; the study does not have a random probability sample to help in testing the hypothesis making the hypothesis testing under the study in doubt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6 - Recommendations

This study has been evaluating the success of teamwork on the improvement of employee performance in the strategic management department in the ADP. The study has established that teamwork is important and it affects the performance of employees positively. The performance of employees is positively affected because of the learning environment created by teamwork. Employees are able to increase their skills and ability to perform tasks. The increased skills can increase the quality of work performed by the employees. In addition, teamwork increases the pace of work thus making employee to do more work leading to increased output. Despite the increased level of quality work performed by employees, there are negative effects such as increased workload and work related pressure resulting from pressure to meet deadlines. This section provides the following recommendations to the strategic management department in the ADP on how it can effectively improve teamwork in the performance of employees. The following recommendations are good for implementation.

6.1 Recommendation 1

The strategic management department is in the ADP organization, which mainly provides services to the public. The department requires improving its service provision to the public. This can be achieved through teamwork in the organization. Therefore, this study proposes the improvement of teamwork in the strategic department in the ADP and thereafter the adoption of teamwork to the ADP organization to improve the employee performance and organization’s performance in service delivery. The strategic department should advise the management in the ADP to employ the teamwork as a strategy to improve the performance of employees.

6.2 Recommendation 2

Teamwork as employed in the department of strategic management is effective in improving employee performance through the increase of pace of work in teams and the learning environment. However, it has some negative effects that respondents complained of including increased workload and work related stress resulting from increased pace of work, work, and pressure to meet deadlines. To reduce the pressure on meeting deadlines, the management should include training sessions to increase learning and modes of performing the various tasks. With experience, the employees will get used to working in a team yet performing well.

6.3 Recommendation 3

Few respondents indicated that teamwork was not improving their performance. Many of the respondents were not working as a team since there was little consultation. This study recommends that the management of the strategic department ensure that teamwork is employed in all sectors of the department for effective outcome.

            To improve the outcome of teamwork and eliminate the negative comments, the management in the strategic department should initiate the reward system to the exemplary teams. Recognition of efforts will not only motivate the team participants, but it will also create a sense of competitiveness in the department making every member active. The overall effect is the improved performance of the employees and the department. Though the organization is a non-profit making organization, there should be some funds set aside specifically to motivate the employees in various teams in the strategic department in the ADP.

6.4 Recommendation 4

Communications is very important in the success of teamwork. The organization culture in the ADP and specifically the strategic management department should encourage communication among managers and employees. Communication will enhance the learning environment while strengthening the relations between employees and the management. Effective communication encourages consultations as a crisis and problem solving. In addition, employees will actively participate in brainstorming debates that will yield to better strategic decisions in the department and in the ADPO organization.

6.5 Recommendation 5

In addition to brainstorming debates, effective communication in the organization will ensure that the management obtains the feedback on every issue in the department and in the organization on service delivery. The availability of feedback will enable the management to know the level of satisfaction with service delivery and therefore develop the necessary strategies to improve where they have failed (Scroggs, 2000, p. 39).

6.6 Recommendation 6

The outstanding members of teams in the department should be provided with new opportunities in the department or in the organization. This is done in order to keep the most effective team members. This can be through undertaking long terms planning of the employees’ future career plans. Each individual employee should be shown how their career goals could help the department and the organization (ADP) in the achievement of its long-term goals. Moreover, the management should create an organizational environment that is rich in creativity, openness, and energy.

The review of the available literature also showed that while most of the studies give evidence of a positive impact of teamwork as a management strategy, there are also those studies that   offer criticism of some of the aspects of teamwork. One of the arguments against the effectiveness of teamwork is that management does not really give much attention and thought to how team performance is precisely measured (Golembiewski 2002). The researchers noted that outcomes that were considered as team performance outcomes were only temporary results that should not be taken as performance outcomes in general. This finding is also a delimitation of the present study where self-reports were strongly depended on for findings. 

The attitude of team members toward cooperation and collaboration with others is yet another aspect that has been criticized in prior studies including this study. Researchers have noted that assigning individuals to a team usually entails the need for a reward system, and it has then been argued that   cooperation between team members is a result of the reward system and not the commitment to team effort. As such, the studies suggest that more in-depth analysis of the source of behavioral changes should be done rather than just attributing these changes too directly the effects of teamwork (Alvesson & Willmott 2002; Mueller 1994). Although prior studies have shown that teams are usually created by management to empower and promote self-sufficiency among employees, both employees and/or management members opposed to the use of teams have suggested taking a closer look at the real/ actual intentions of management. There were studies that suggested that rather than empowerment and autonomy, management should create teams to have more power over the employees and the organization by being able to monitor groups instead of individuals (Ezzamel & Willmot 1998; Sewell 1998, p. 215). Some research areas that may be pursued further to increase the sense of teamwork exercised by SMT, in order to reap optimal results by the ADP.

6.7 Conclusion

These recommendations will no doubt steer the increased and improved performance of the strategic department in the ADP and the overall performance of the organization in service delivery.

 

 

7.0 References

‘Teamwork’ 2007, Teamwork and high performance work organization, retrieved on august 15, 2010 from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/reports/TN0507TR01/TN0507TR01.pdf

ADP, 2010, Mission Statement, retrieved on September 19, 2010 from: http://www.adpolice.gov.ae/en/search/

ADP, n.d. Abu Dhabi Police Implements APD solutions to improve homeland security, retrieved on November 1, 2010 from: http://www.apdcomms.com/assets/pdf/APDnews_AbuDhabi.pdf

Aichouni, M 2005, Statistical Quality Control Techniques: Quality. The Quarterly Bulletin Issued from the Total Quality Center of Abu Dhabi Police, pp. 10-11, No,  6, September 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

Appendix A: Strategic Management Department Initiatives 

This appendix outlines various planned initiatives for strategic management in the Abu Dhabi Police to develop capacity, efficiency, and effectiveness in its activity, the time periods of implementation,and the target deadlines anticipated in the implememtation process. The objective of the apendix is to supplement the recommended actions and programs described in the main text above.      

 

Strategic Management Department Initiatives

Initiative

Planned
Start Date

Planned
End Date

Yearly Progress Target

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Enhancing the capabilities of police mobile patrols in detecting and solving crime, through the deployment of an advanced technology platform

2008

2010

100%

 

 

 

 

Upgrade and enhance systems and analytical capability to improve the effectiveness of arresting people on the wanted list.

2008

2010

100%

 

 

 

 

Responding to the increased threat of serious crime, by upgrading the capabilities of teams that target this crime.

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

To respond to the increased threat (real and perceived) from drugs, by improving the capabilities of ports and borders teams - through implementation of International Good practices and technical upgrades.

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Set-up dedicated unit to deal with money laundering cases - working with central bank and international partners

2010

2012

80.00%

90.00%

100.00%

 

 

Develop and establish intelligence explosives centre - to provide the force with information and equipments to deal with potential threats: providing information and training.

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Develop new capabilities to investigate electronic and computer crime.

2010

2013

85.00%

90%

95.00%

100.00%

 

Activate special  unit to deal with suspected child protection issues and Investigate with suspected people

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Working with Ministry of Justice, review and reduce the number of cases, which are not subject of prosecution due to the lack of evidence.

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Developing the Forensic Science capabilities within Abu Dhabi Police to provide a World Class Service that will reduce the number of unsolved cases and improve the identification of suspects

2009

2014

51.00%

58%

64.00%

66.00%

68.00%

Further, develop and implement the structured approach to preventative initiatives to be deployed in all police locations.

2010

2013

70.00%

80%

90.00%

100.00%

 

Use of education and rehabilitation programs as alternative sentencing options to reduce repeat offending and hence overall crime rate

2010

2014

73.00%

79%

85.00%

92.00%

100.00%

Develop and deploy a consistent approach to tasking and co-ordination throughout Abu Dhabi Police.

2010

2011

70.00%

100%

 

 

 

Establish intelligence units in new areas

2010

2011

50.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Develop and deploy approach for greater public involvement in intelligence gathering (AMAN)

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Achieving optimal use of modern technologies to enhance  the capability  gathering intelligence information 

2010

2014

40.00%

65.00%

80.00%

90.00%

100.00%

Developing the investigation of serious road collisions

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Providing appropriate levels enforcement for the enlarged road network to target driver behavior that causes serious incidents and improve road safety

2010

2012

50.00%

75.00%

100.00%

 

 

Establish a specialist taskforce to target localized, short-term, road safety matters

2010

2014

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Using automated systems to target drivers who commit high speed and red light offences

2010

2014

20.00%

40.00%

60.00%

80.00%

100.00%

Developing and implementing a speed management strategy on roads

2008

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Establishing a traffic village to increase road safety awareness among school children / students

2010

2012

25.00%

60.00%

100.00%

 

 

Develop community-based road-safety awareness and education programs

2010

2014

15.00%

30.00%

50.00%

75.00%

100.00%

Implementing the program within comprehensive police stations to provide defined communication channels with the local stakeholders and community

2009

2014

80.00%

85.00%

90.00%

95.00%

100.00%

Respond to the continually changing demographics and language mix within the Emirate by further developing and implementing the Community Policing model.

2009

2014

75.00%

85.00%

90.00%

95.00%

100.00%

Using the media to enhance community confidence and trust with ADP, through targeted campaigns.

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Implementing a program to enhance customer satisfaction with Abu Dhabi Police services

2009

2012

40.00%

70.00%

100%

 

 

Ensuring that a consistent service provision is available to citizens at all AD Police stations in Abu Dhabi City

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Develop threat assessment and risk assessment process (for potential major incidents/crises)

2010

2011

35.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Develop plans and control measures to minimize the impact of incidents

2010

2011

40.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Identify in collaboration with ADEC areas where current legislation needs to be updated (Crisis Management)

2010

2011

60.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Develop the master plan for deployment and integration of technology relating to the security of the Emirate.

2009

2010

 

 

 

 

 

Develop polices, guidance, legislation and enforcement protocols for the anticipated CBRN materials requirements.

2009

2013

40.00%

60.00%

80.00%

100.00%

 

To test Abu Dhabi Police major incident response capability by means of exercises.

2010

2011

35.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Further, develop the existing relationships with Strategic Partners in the crisis management arena - enhancing existing MOU's and adopting SLA's where appropriate.

2010

2011

52.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Review of protection and event security activities to identify opportunities to introduce commercial approaches. (including privatization and 'charged for' services)

2010

2012

25.00%

60.00%

100.00%

 

 

To provide a first response capability to firearms incidents within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi

2010

2011

50.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Improving the effectiveness of diplomatic protection through the introduction of appropriate technology

2009

2011

45.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Deploy systems and processes to improve the response performance to road collisions - to support improvements in customer satisfaction

2010

2011

35.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Deploy systems and processes to improve the response performance for Fire and Technical rescue Emergencies- to support improvements in customer satisfaction

2010

2011

35.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Deploy systems and processes to improve the response performance of Public Safety resources (e.g. Ambulances including air ambulance) to Emergencies- to support improvements in customer satisfaction

2010

2011

35.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

To enhance the ability of Abu Dhabi Police to respond to crisis, by developing the capability to provided live video links from any location within the Emirate, direct to the Command and Control Centre.

2010

2011

80.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

As a result of the 2009 feasibility study, establish the GIS Security Centre and utilize the capabilities of GIS to increase operational efficiency and effectiveness

2009

2014

50.00%

60.00%

75.00%

85.00%

100.00%

To Develop Command Facilities specifically designed to manage events and crises

2009

2011

75.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

To further, develop the capability of Abu Dhabi Police to provide a greater range of rescue services, to meet the structural changes as a result of the development of the Emirate.

2009

2011

80.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Asses & review business process framework and ensure the integration and alignment with performance management & strategic planning process 

2010

Dec-13

23.00%

48.00%

73.00%

100.00%

 

Setup a benchmarking centre responsible for providing “benchmarking services” to ADP

2010

Dec-13

58.00%

80.00%

92.00%

100.00%

 

Implementing DSIC’s development projects - to ensure the electronic accessibility of Abu Dhabi Police's services to customers

2008

2011

75.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

To identify and review services and processes within Abu Dhabi Police and automate those appropriate

2010

2011

50.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Development and adoption of a formal, over-arching approach for Partnership working across all of the ADP (including Community Partnership, Strategic Relationships, etc)

2010

2014

25.00%

50.00%

70.00%

85.00%

100.00%

To implement Environmental Health and Safety Regulations

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Conduct a readiness assessment, road map design for implementation of an ABC system

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Implementation of Abu Dhabi Police Estates Strategy

2010

2014

20.00%

40.00%

60.00%

80.00%

100.00%

Implementation of the Abu Dhabi Security Policy and Standards - phase one

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

To develop access control IT systems across Abu Dhabi Police sites

2009

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

To develop two new data centers in Abu Dhabi and Al Ain

2008

2011

91.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

To deploy iris scan technology to police stations and preventative medical enrolment sites to assist in investigations and identification of individuals

2009

2011

70.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

Review and enhance the Police Training School Syllabus, by measuring the capabilities and competencies of recent graduates - and identifying suitable adjustments to the development programs.

2010

2010

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Project to complete the implementation of Kirkpatrick training evaluation model within Abu Dhabi Police to evaluate and improve effectiveness

2010

2011

80.00%

100.00%

 

 

 

 

Appendix B: Data Collection Tool Designs

This appendix outlines a sample of the questionnaire and interview questions for use in the collection of data and information among ADP staff and management in a bid to assess the strengths and weaknessses of current operations inthe organization. This is important in the establishment of knowledge of what areas and aspects of operations require addressing to enhance efficiency and productivity in the operations of the organization to facilitate high quality provision of services to the society. The appendix is relevant to the data collection and analysis sections of Chapter Three.   

Interview questions

General information

Gender:      Male                                   Female

What is your position in the ADP? _____________________________

1.      How would you rate the level of your department’s teamwork?

Very high                          average                        very low

High                                  low

Please give the percentage ________________________________________________

2.      Do you cooperate with colleagues, or do your colleagues cooperate with you, while on duty, and to what extent?

Very high                         average                        very little

High                                 little

Comment …………………………………………………………………………………

3.      In order to encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. How do rate the level of communication within the strategic department in ADP?

Very high                                     little                 None

High                                             very little

Remarks   …………………………………………………………………………………

4.      How do you as an officer develop and encourage teamwork in the strategic management department in ADP?

5.      How would you rate the degree of resource commitment in relation to the development and encouragement of teamwork in strategic management department? 

Very high                                      standard                      very low

High                                              low

Please state the percentage_________________________

6.      What was the role of formulating strategy and methods of Strategic management in relation to employee performance?

Very important                              Unimportant                not important

Important                                      of little importance

7.      Please rate the importance of strategic management to the strategic management department;

Very important                              not important

Important                                      of little importance

Give a percentage…………………………….

8.      On a scale of 1 to 4 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within the strategic management department?

            1                                  4                      5

            2                                  3

Comments..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

9.      How likely are you to recommend teamwork strategy as a strategic management strategy to a friendly non-profit making organization in another industry? Do you think the chances are?

            Excellent                                 average                        poor

            Very good                               Fair

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

10.  What are some of the obstacles that you encountered in the process of Adopting teamwork as a strategic management strategy in ADP?

11.  What suggestions or advice would you like to give to other non-profit making organizations that are planning to increase the employee performance through teamwork?

12.  How is the organizational culture and teamwork related? Is teamwork incorporated in the organizational culture?

13.  Do you think you can perform better if your fellow officers and juniors could accord teamwork and cooperation to you? Yes… No…

Never                                Absolutely                   significantly

Slightly                              Averagely

14.        What were the factors or the main motives of adopting teamwork for the organization?

15.        Do you think the level of performance of the strategic management department will improve if teamwork would be increased through increased communication and cooperation in ADP?

16.  Could there be a relationship between teamwork / cooperation and the performance of the individual employees in the strategic management department in ADP?

17.  What other suggestions concerning strategic management and teamwork would you like non-profit making organizations to use in order to improve the individual employee performance?

 

 

Questionnaire Questions

General information

Gender:      Male                                   Female

What is your position in the strategic management department in ADP? _____________________________

1.      How would you rate the level of your organization’s teamwork?

Very high                          average                        very low

High                                  low

Please give the percentage ________________________________________________

2.      Do you cooperate with or do your colleagues cooperate with you while on duty? To what extent?

Very high                         average                        very little

High                                 little

Comment …………………………………………………………………………………

3.      In order to encourage teamwork and cooperation, there is need for communication. How do rate the level of communication within ADP? Are you able to communicate directly to your boss in case of difficulty or any other issue in the organization?

 Very high                                    average                        None

High                                             very little

4.      How is teamwork developed and encouraged in strategic management department?

5.      How would you rate the degree of resource commitment in relation to the development and encouragement of teamwork in the strategic management department? 

Very high                                      average                        very low

High                                              low

Please state the percentage_________________________

6.      What was the role of formulating strategy and methods of Strategic management in relation to employee performance?

Very important                              moderately important              Unimportant

Important                                      of little importance

7.      Please rate the importance of strategic management to strategic management department;

Very important                              moderately important                          not important

Important                                      of little importance

Give a percentage…………………………….

8.      On a scale of 1 to 4 where 1 represents ‘extremely satisfied’ and 4 represents ‘extremely dissatisfied’ How would you rate your level of overall satisfaction with teamwork and cooperation within the strategic management department?

            1                                  4                      5

            2                                  3

Comments..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

9.      How likely are you to recommend teamwork strategy as a strategic management strategy to a friendly non-profit making organization in another industry? Do you think the chances are?

            Excellent                                 average                        poor

            Very good                               Fair

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

10.  What are some of the obstacles that you encountered in the process of Adopting teamwork as a strategic management strategy in the strategic management department?

11.  What suggestions or advice would you like to give to other non-profit making organizations that are planning to increase the employee performance through teamwork?

12.  How is the organizational culture and teamwork related? Is teamwork incorporated in the organizational culture?

13.  Do you think you can perform better if your colleagues and managers could accord teamwork and cooperation to you? Yes… No…

Never                                averagely                     Absolutely

      Slightly                              significantly

                 

14.        What were the factors or the main motives of adopting teamwork for the organization?

15.        Do you think the level of performance of the strategic management department will improve if teamwork would be increased through increased communication and cooperation in the strategic management department?

16.  Could there be a relationship between teamwork / cooperation and the performance of the individual employees in the strategic management department in ADP?

17.  What other suggestions concerning strategic management and teamwork would you like non-profit making organizations to use in order to improve the individual employee performance?

 

 

Appendix C: Calculation of Averages

This appendix outlines the criteria for use in the determination of averages in the results obtained after collection of data from the field using the questionnaire and interview tools. This is important in the making of valid conclusions from the results. This appendix is relevant for the data analysis section of Chapter Three.   

 

The likert scale runs from 1-5 with strongly

Agree                                    1

Strongly Agree                  2

Average                               3

Disagree                              4

Strongly disagree             5

Total marks                         15

 

The average = sum of all percentages for Agree, Strongly Agree and Average /100 X 15

Therefore, the averages for the eight questions are

Qsn 1     12

Qsn 2     10.0

Qsn 3     9.1

Qsn 4     6.7

Qsn 5     11.5

Qsn 6     12

Qsn 7     9.9

Qsn 8     12

 

Appendix D

This appendix outlines a representation of the planned framework for operations in the ADP, to enhance efficiency and productivity in the provision of services. The first part outlines the planned hierarchy of operations in the organization, while the second outlines the terms of reference for use in the administration of operations in the organization to enhance efficiency and productivity. Other parts outline key points of reference and policies for use in the organization in the enhancement of efficiency and productivity.          

First: Planned Public Administration on Strategy and Improved Performance

                                    

General Secretariat of the Minister's Office

Branch Support Services

Office of the Director-General

 

Public administration and development

Of strategic performance

 

 

 

Strategic management of the affairs of the ministry

 

Quality Management

Strategic management and development   performance of the General

Directorate of Abu Dhabi Police

Corporate performance management and discrimination

 

 

Development Department Organizational

Department of Systems Management Action

Complaints and suggestions

Department of corporate

performance management